Published by City Farmer, Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture

Urban Agriculture Notes

by City Farmer

Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture

Home Page Continued - Page 2

Established 1978
Vancouver, BC, Canada
Now Celebrating Our 24th Year!

Prepared by Michael Levenston, Executive Director

On-line on the World Wide Web since October 15, 1994.
© Copyright City Farmer 1994-2006

IDRC-CSFS Workshops on Urban Agriculture
Presentation papers available for downloading. Workshop 1: Regional Training and Courses in Urban Agriculture and Food Security. Workshop 2: The Urban Agriculture Research Partners' Meeting: First Preparatory Workshop for World Urban Forum 2006." Posted August 12, 2004

Micro Eco-Farming: Prospering from Backyard to Small-Acreage in Partnership with the Earth
New Book: "Micro eco-farms fill in spaces that larger sized farms don't attend to. They use back yards, vacant lots, or their family's own small acreage. As they grow in number, it is anyone's guess as to what type of new economical foundation they could create." Posted August 12, 2004

An Urban Food Garden in Malaga, Spain
"Esta es una historia real que demuestra que es posible cultivar un huerto "ecol�gico" en tu casa, casi sin importar donde vivas. Tan sólo necesitas sol, agua y, lo más importante, algo de interés, entusiasmo y amor a la naturaleza. Un tomate criado por tí de forma artesana y natural (sin pesticidas, ni herbicidas, ni abonos químicos) tiene el indescriptible y fantástico sabor de la satisfacción personal." Posted August 12, 2004

Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes - Designing Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities
New Book: "The first book on urban agriculture for architects, landscape architects and urban designers. Over 230 images give the reader a clear visual idea about the impact of this pioneering subject. Urban design is shown in practice through international case studies. Chapter One: Carrot and City: A New Urbanism. Chapter Two: Pro Urban Agriculture. Chapter Three: Open Urban Space." Posted August 9, 2004

Environmental Youth Alliance - Urban Agriculture in Vancouver
"EYA youth worked with the Strathcona Community Garden Association to build a Community Nursery so plant material will be more readily available for local urban agriculture projects. Phase one of the project involved the construction of a lockup nursery building in order to securely store plant material and supplies." Posted August 5, 2004

A Mini-Farm Trip to Uzbekistan 2004
"This country is self-sufficient in food and only imports tropical fruits such as bananas. They are more expensive than at home so very few can afford them. Every house has a garden and as you fly over the country all you see is gardens and minifarms." Posted August 5, 2004

Urban Agriculture on the Rooftop
"Rooftops are places of fantasy and imagination - places that sit above the din and chaos of the city, engaged with and yet apart from the city's motion. Rooftops yearn for the sky and yet are grounded to the city through the buildings which they top. What better place could there be for a garden? Or even better, a garden and a source of food?" Thesis in PDF format Posted July 15, 2004

Grow Veggies and Herbs From Your Condo in Vancouver
"Freesia is offering a garden terrace with about 60 personal plots. For an additional $2,800 on top of the selling price, a buyer can purchase one of the 1.5-metre-square gardening plots and a small tool locker." Posted July 12, 2004

Urban Farmers as Extension Domain: The Case of Atteridgeville,(Pretoria, South Africa)
"The article identifies and explains three extension domains among urban farmers among the informal settlements of Atteridgeville. These consist of home gardeners, community-project gardeners, and users of open urban spaces. ... The paper concludes by calling for closer involvement of government and public extension in urban agriculture in the study area because urban farming mainly benefits the poor." PDF download. Posted July 9, 2004

Montreal Rooftop Garden
"This summer, Alternatives, Santropol Roulant and a range of other partners are building a major demonstration garden on the roof of the University of Quebec's TélTéUniversitTé (TelUQ) building. This 500 square meter garden, situated in the heart of the densely populated Plateau-Mont Royal neighbourhood, will be coordinated and maintained by Santropol Roulant volunteers, providing vegetables for their meals-on-wheels service." Posted July 7, 2004

The Planner in the Garden: A Historical View into the Relationship between Planning and Community Gardens
"A historical review of community garden programs in the United States since the 1890s reveals an ambivalent relationship between community gardens and the planning profession. On one hand, garden programs are praised and supported as local action to serve environmental, social, and individual objectives. On the other hand, because they are perceived as opportunistic and temporary, community gardens are largely ignored in long-range planning. (Journal of Planning History, May 2004) Subcription required for full text." Posted July 6, 2004

BBC World feature - A Growing Trend - on Urban Agriculture
" 'A Growing Trend' highlights exactly that: how different methods of producing food - small-scale, organic, natural farming and urban agriculture are on the increase. While alternatives to large-scale agriculture are often born out of necessity, these methods are proving to be highly effective at meeting nutritional and economic needs and at the same time helping to build communities and protect the environment." Posted June 18, 2004

Edible Cities from Gobar Times in India
"We cityfolk consider ourselves to be very smart. Not so, discovers Gobar Times. The modern city has a garangutan appetite and is frightfully wasteful. It takes more than it gives. It ingests tonnes and tonnes of cereals, meat, vegetables and fruits grown in rural areas far and wide; chomps, chews and digests all that foodstuff; converts some of it into human energy; burps, and then spews the remaining all out as organic garbage and sewage." Posted March 28 2004

Urban Agriculture Network - Western Pacific - Monthly Newsletter
"Urban agriculture is one counter-measure to food terrorism that must now be considered and developed. ... Good business people know that behind most threats lie opportunities. The threat of food terrorism is an opportunity in disguise for global urban and peri-urban agriculture." Posted March 24 2004

Simplifed Hydroponics and Urban Agriculture in Uruguay and Ecuador
"Simplified Hydroponics has provided real solutions for low-income families and impoverished communities in many parts of the world. MARTIN CALDEYRO describes one innovative project in Uruguay that has improved family health and living standards, and is a model for other communities in Latin America to follow." Posted February 21 2004

In The Real World, Poor People Practise Urban Agriculture
According to a needs assessment by the Millennium Development Goals Hunger Task Force, all problems of food security in poor countries would be solved if the rich world spent US$70 billion per annum, or 0.3% of its GNP, on addressing them, mainly by building infrastructure. The fact is, they don't, and they are probably not about to do so. Meanwhile, in the real world, poor people practice urban agriculture." Posted February 19 2004

Urban agriculture: What limits?
Don Okpala, Chief of UN-HABITAT's Urban Economy and Finance Branch and Acting Director of its Monitoring and Research Division, comments in Habitat Debate, December, 2003. "In the ongoing debate over urban agriculture, UN-HABITAT focuses on food security and income enhancement for urban populations. The agency is not opposed to urban agriculture as such. But its view is that the practice must be subject to certain conditions and limitations. " Posted February 19 2004

NASA Paper Speaks of Urbanization and Agriculture
NASA says "Though cities account for just 3 percent of continental U.S. land area, the food and fiber that could be grown there rivals current production on all U.S. agricultural lands, which cover 29 percent of the country. Urbanization follows agriculture. Throughout history, highly productive agricultural land brought food, wealth and trade to an area, all of which fostered settlements." Posted February 18 2004

Urban Agriculture Reaches New Heights Through Rooftop Gardening
"A Montreal-based development organization is experimenting with a gardening system called "rooftop simplified hydroponics" — a system adapted from the group's experiences in the developing world. During the winter of 2002, with the support of Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC), a researcher from the development organization, expanded her knowledge of hydroponics in other countries. She worked with the University of Casablanca in Morocco and the Institute for Simplified Hydroponics in Mexico." Posted February 3, 2004

ACGA Conference: "Gardens of Diversity, Growing Across Cultures" Friday October 1 - Sunday October 3, 2004 Toronto, Ontario
American Community Gardening Association (ACGA) - Themes: Community Development, Conservation and Restoration, Diversity, Entrepreneurial projects, Food Security, Horticulture, Innovations, International activities, Politics and Public Policy, Professional and Organizational Development, Research, Special Needs, Youth, Children, School Gardens. Posted January 28, 2004

Organic Farming in Pakistan
"Organic Products, Social Qualities With Equal And Fair Trade Its Constrain And Future, Composting As An Organic Fertiliser, Producing Pesticide Free Fruits And Vegetables, The Characteristics Of Rabbit Farming, Chiku or Sapodilla The Neglected Fruit of Sindh, Gender Issue In Rural Development Of Sindh In Pakistan." Posted January 21, 2004

Does Irrigated Urban Agriculture Influence the Transmission of Malaria in the City of Kumasi, Ghana?
"To verify the possible impact of irrigated urban agriculture on malaria transmission in cities, we studied entomological parameters, self-reported malaria episodes, and household-level data in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. A comparison was made between city locations without irrigated agriculture, city locations with irrigated urban vegetable production, and peri-urban (PU) locations with rain-fed agriculture." Posted January 10, 2004

Urban and Metropolitan Agricultural Prospects
Jac Smit, a pioneer urban agriculturalist, wrote this paper in 1978. "North American metropolitan agriculture is likely to have smaller production units, similar to family farms. It is unlikely to have lower production costs, particularly when one includes the cost of overcoming soil and air pollution. However, marketing costs are likely to be much lower with savings in transport, packaging, middlemen and wastage losses." Posted December 17, 2003

Heavy Metal Concentrations in Urban And Peri-Urban Gardens of Dzerzhinsk and Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
"The general heavy metal concentrations in the study area, however, was significantly lower than e.g. in Berlin, Hamburg, Moscow or London, which was attributed to less traffic and potential leaching due to sandy soil texture." Posted December 16, 2003

Livestock Keeping in Urban Areas
"Studies have revealed that more than 20 000 households in Bamako keep livestock in town, and thousands more people supply them with inputs or marketing services; over one-third of households surveyed in Harare keep livestock, mainly chickens but also rabbits, pigeons, ducks and turkeys. In Dar-es-Salaam urban farming is the second largest employer after petty trade and labour, and 74 percent of urban farmers keep livestock; and even in densely populated Cairo, 5 percent of households keep animals, especially chickens and pigeons. " Posted November 20, 2003

Lead Levels Of Edibles Grown In Contaminated Residential Soils: A Field Survey
"Some edible portions of the leafy vegetables and herbs, however, were found to have lead levels that, if consumed, could contribute to the total body burden of lead. Therefore, urban gardeners should test the lead levels in their soils and develop strategies to ensure safety.". Posted November 20, 2003

Mayor of Vancouver Proclaims November "City Farmer Month"!!
"AND WHEREAS City Farmer is recognized as one of the leaders in providing service and information out to the world about urban agriculture, waste reduction and sustainability;.NOW, THEREFORE, I, Larry Campbell, Mayor of the City of Vancouver, DO HEREBY PROCLAIM the month of November 2003 as "CITY FARMER MONTH" in the City of Vancouver." Posted November 8, 2003

Urban Agriculture in Kano, Nigeria - Three Reports
They are: "Feeding Africa's urban poor: urban and peri-urban horticulture in Kano, Nigeria", "Urban agriculture under threat: the land security question in Kano, Nigeria", and "Water, land and health in urban and peri-urban food production: the case of Kano, Nigeria". Posted November 2, 2003

Feeding Africa's Growing Cities Into The 21st Century: The Potential Of Urban Agriculture
"From a survey of literature and detailed empirical evidence from Kano and Dar es Salaam, this paper presents a framework for analysing urban agriculture and proposes a number of policy recommendations which could possibly enhance its future sustainability." Posted November 2, 2003

Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture - A briefing guide for the successful implementation of Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture in Developing Countries and Countries of Transition
FAO's "Food For the Cities" web page links to a number of excellent reports in PDF format. As well as the title shown above by Dr. Alex Drescher, there are three other files by the same author titled: "SOFA - Special Chapter on Urbanization "Urbanization - Linking Development Across the Changing Landscape" Updated October 26, 2003

Kenya - Experts Call for Urban Farming Policy
"According to Eric Kisiangani of ITDG "officially sanctioned and promoted, urban agriculture could become an important component of urban development and make more food available to the urban poor in Kenya besides providing employment in a moribund economy that Kenya is"." Updated October 26, 2003

British Pathe News Reels Show Historic War Garden Programs
"You have to see the clip of the chimpanzee dressed in clothes using tools to dig in his vegetable patch, or the children digging in allotments in amongst bombed out buildings after the Blitz in London. Then there are the costumed British actors advising people to prepare their winter gardens and still another film of school children watering gardens during WW1 dressed in outfits from fashion long gone, - unbelievable. " Posted October 22, 2003

Kathmandu Rooftop Organic-Hydroponics Project (KROHP)
"Combining composting and locally constructed 'simplified' hydroponics technologies, along with grey and rainwater collection for irrigation, this project encourages a form of urban agriculture that integrates energy and resource efficient production to create an innovative and sustainable industry." Updated October 13, 2003

Green Roofs, An Icon For Our Urban Future
"Roofs able to hold the weight of 12 to 18 inches of soil can successfully grow large quantities of produce such as hot and green peppers, cucumbers, sweet potato, tomatoes, and eggplant. With ongoing research and development of lightweight growing media, rooftop greenhouses, and hydroponic techniques, the potential to grow crops on a wider range of rooftops will continue to increase." Posted October 10, 2001

Farm Experiment Thrives In The City - Philadelphia
"Farmers Lori Albright (left), 32, and Nicole Shelly, 28, have worked since March on the farm, which is expected to gross $25,000 this year. The pair usually work 45-hour weeks for $7 an hour. " Posted October 8, 2001

Design, Analysis and Management of Urban Agriculture For Resilient Communities - A Course
For people in policy formulation and action planning, January 12 - 23rd, 2004. Wageningen, The Netherlands. "The course adresses promises and drawbacks of urban agriculture. It uses modern system approaches to study practical experiences, challenges and breakthroughs as brought forward by the participants. Insights from architecture, chaos theory, ecology, social science, agriculture, energy-supply and logistics provide new avenues in problems that are difficult to deal with in traditional thinking." Posted October 6, 2001

Community Gardening In The City Of Ottawa
"There are 19 community gardens currently in the City of Ottawa, with approximately 1,080 gardeners. Fourteen of the 19 community gardens are currently on land owned by the City of Ottawa; two are on church property, two are on private land, and one is on property owned by the University of Ottawa. The Gloucester Allotment Garden Association has two locations, one of these is on NCC land leased by the City and the other is on City property." Posted September 14, 2001

Green Roof on our Cob Garden Shed
See all the stages involved in building a green roof. Posted September 12, 2003

BC Mushrooms - Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP)
"The pine mushroom (Tricholoma magnivelare), is by far the most valuable commercially harvested mushroom (in BC). Other valuable edible mushrooms are the chanterelles, morels, lobsters, boletes, cauliflowers and hedgehogs." Posted September 2, 2003

New Agricultuist Magazine - Focus on Urban Agriculture
"Often illegal, and usually ignored by planners and policy-makers, the growing of crops and keeping of livestock by town and city dwellers creates both opportunities and risks. Urban consumers may enjoy improved availability of fresh vegetables, milk or poultry products." Posted August 31, 2003

2003 AGROPOLIS Awardees
12 new urban agriculture research awards presented, e.g. "Impact of wastewater irrigation on crops and consumers in Kumasi, Accra, and Tamale [Ghana]" and "Evaluation of the socio-economic determinants and benefits of urban agriculture: The case of Kadoma, Zimbabwe" Posted August 31, 2003

Advisers or spies? Why some people fear communist infiltration in this Caracas garden. Fears of Cuban 'infiltration' in Venezuela
"The controversy has arisen because many of the advisers assisting with the gardening programme are Cubans. And Mr Chavez's opponents, who accuse him of desiring to convert Venezuela into a communist dictatorship similar to that led by his friend, Cuban leader Fidel Castro, suspect that the Cubans are here to do more than teach farming." Posted August 24, 2003

The Garden City Handbook
PDF download. "Over the past two years, Greater Victoria has lost two of its precious community gardens to development. The Handbook provides a description of the current context and circumstances of community gardens across the region. ... It offers a range of alternatives for ensuring that community gardens are protected and provides community groups with guidance for starting gardens and ensuring that they thrive over the long term." Posted August 20, 2003

Seeds of Success
PDF download. "Cities across Canada and the United States offer models for creating and maintaining community gardens. Seeds of Success reveals the range and breadth of possibilities for integrating community gardens into the fabric of communities and protecting these gardens from development. ... Within smaller cities, including Inuvik, Waterloo and Bloomington, local governments and nonprofit groups are adapting community gardens to the specific needs of their citizens." Posted August 20, 2003

Landmarks: A touch of Tolkien Emerges at Kits Demo Garden
Story in the West Ender newspaper. "When completed, the tool shed will have a living green roof, a surrounding bench area and an impressively sculpted cob cooking oven. It will be festooned with a relief sculpture depicting the stratification beneath the topsoil surface: rocks, roots, old fossils, shells and some gnome-like creatures. The door to the structure is a work of art itself, resembling a rounded ship's hull, and several inches thick." Posted July 18, 2003

Drought Tolerant Plant List for Vancouver City Boulevards
"List compiled by volunteer Master Gardeners from Van Dusen Botanical Garden for the Prince Edward Street Waterwise Blooming Boulevard Project. Because soil and water conditions vary, results cannot be guaranteed. This list is intended as a guide to those plants which have proven drought tolerant in average conditions"(Large page/slow loading) Posted July 13, 2003

The Status Of Urban And Peri-Urban Agriculture In Windhoek And Oshakati, Namibia
"The study showed that urban and peri-urban agriculture is practised by over 70% of the residents of Windhoek and Oshakati, and that over 23 types of vegetables and fruit trees are grown on tiny plots. Most of the produce is consumed by the household and contributes to improvement of their nutritional status. The absence of policy on urban and peri-urban agriculture is seen as a serious constraint towards its intensification and development." Posted July 9, 2003

New Village Journal: Issue Two: Urban Agriculture
Urban Agriculture: A Revolutionary Model for Economic Development Forward and Profiles by Chris Lazarus
Urban Aquaculture by Beth Ferguson
Profiles in Urban Agriculture
The Food Project- Roxbury and Lincoln, Massachusetts
Isles Community Farm- Trenton, New Jersey
Fairview Gardens- Goleta, California
Annex Organics/ Field to Table- Toronto, Ontario
Greensgrow Farm- Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Growing Home- Chicago, Illinois
Village of Arts and Humanities- Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
The Urban Agriculture Network- Washington, D.C.
Resources in Urban Agriculture
Updated May 3, 2003

New Village Journal: Premier Issue: Community Gardens
Reclaiming the Sacred Commons (Full article in Acrobat PDF format, 370K) by Karl Linn
The Death of Little Puerto Rico: New York City Gardens Plowed Under by Urban Development by Sarah Fegusen
Brief History of Grassroots Greening in New York City by Sarah Fergusen
Resources: Community Gardening
Updated May 3, 2003

Cuba Exports City Farming 'Revolution' to Venezuela
"Inspired by Cuba's system of urban market gardens, which has been operating for several years, left-wing President Hugo Chavez has ordered the creation of similar intensive city plots across Venezuela in a bid to develop food self-sufficiency in the world's No. 5 oil exporter. Inside Fuerte Tiuna military headquarters, soldiers of the crack Ayala armored battalion supervised by Cuban instructors have swapped their rifles for shovels and hoes to tend neat rows of lettuce, tomatoes, carrots, coriander, and parsley." Posted April 28, 2003

A Healthy Garden is a Healthy Ecosystem
"The best way to solve plant health and pest and disease problems is not by cleaning the garden and applying fertilizers and pesticides. Simple horticultural practices such as soil improvement, effective deep watering and increasing the variety of plant material are the best way to create a stable and healthy garden." Posted April 21, 2003

Family Business Garden: A New Dimension Of Urban Agricultural Extension In Colombo, Sri Lanka
"The Census of Population and Housing of Sri Lanka-2001 shows that urban population has risen and the highest urban population of 54.7% is concentrated in the Colombo district. The main theme of the concept of Family Business Garden is to stress the need in converting simple form of home gardening or kitchen gardening into the entrepreneurship development venture on the long-term basis. It based on conservation of resources and aesthetic values in association with mental satisfaction." Posted April 12, 2003

Seeds Of Our City : Case Studies From Eight Diverse Community Gardens
"We were interested in learning how much food can be grown in the typical community garden plot, and what kind of impact it has on the food security of the people involved. Essential to this study was the involvement of a core of dedicated gardeners who settled in Canada from many different countries: China, Ghana, Jamaica, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam." Posted April 1, 2003

The Garden Project
"The Garden Project, a nine-year-old gardening and job-training program, has provided free food to soup kitchens and residents of the Bay Area's poorest communities for years. Based at the San Francisco County Jail, the program trains 15 ex-prisoners each year to grow organic vegetables and helps them make the transition into a legal working life. " Posted April 1, 2003

Argentine Postage Stamps Celebrate Urban Agriculture
"The design of the first stamp is of two united hands that tend to the gardens and the produce they yield, while the other stamp depicts a stalk of corn. Both have as a background, city plans, evoking the urban context of community gardens. -- The series takes into the account the current state of the economy in the Argentine Republic, and recognizes its terrible effect on the large numbers of families who live below the poverty line and it acknowledges the effects of the lack of food on these people." Posted March 23, 2003

Supporting and Encouraging Initiatives of Urban Agriculture in Gaza Refugees Camps
"The low standard of living in Gaza strip, the low income of individuals, the mass unemployment, the rapid population increase, ... a great number of families living in and off the cities, depend on Urban Agriculture to create job opportunities to elevate their standard of living. The majority of refugees in camps and city dwellers in Gaza Strip are farmers in origin." Posted March 22, 2003

Six Student Essays on the Theme: Ag Science in the City: "The Importance of Agriculture for Urban Areas
Click on report: Boundless Science for Bountiful Agriculture: Winning Student Essays, 2003. "How can a city dweller eat healthier, live in a better environment, and save money all at the same time? Natural resources are limited in urban areas, so nothing should go to waste. Urban agriculture is our chance to save money, help our environment, and improve health. Urban agriculture can benefit all of society." Posted March 22, 2003

Arachnophobia in the Garden of Food and Flowers
"Then I turned the page to the real horror show - the three monsters known as House Spiders. In university I called them the Cheap Basement Suite Spiders. The first of this group is the Barn Funnel Weaver. This is the guy making those thick webs in dark, damp basements and in the corners of old house windows in horror movies. The Hobo Spider has an "alarmingly ugly bite" and the Giant House Spider, which is in the author's words "quite frankly, the creepiest bug in the whole darn province of BC." " Posted March 19, 2003

"Aquaponics is the combination of intensive aquaculture (fish farming) and hydroponics (growing plants without soil). In an aquaponic system, the fish consume food and excrete waste. Beneficial bacteria convert the waste to nitrate which the plants use in the growth process. Many backyard gardeners are setting up systems to grow hundreds of pounds of fish and all the fresh vegetables a family needs." Posted March 17, 2003

Victory Garden Network Providing Urban Agriculture Grants
"The International Victory Garden Network is currently providing grants of up to $10,000 to food security organizations or activists who want to initiate innovative pilot projects around issues of urban agriculture and urban food insecurity in the spirit of the World War 2 Victory Gardeners." Posted March 7, 2003

Wastewater's Value in Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture
"The use of urban wastewater in agriculture is a centuries old practice that is receiving renewed attention with the increasing scarcity of fresh water resources in many arid and semi-arid regions. Driven by rapid urbanization and growing wastewater volumes, wastewater is widely used as a low-cost alternative to conventional irrigation water; it supports livelihoods and generates considerable value in urban and peri-urban agriculture despite the health and environmental risks associated with this practice." Posted March 5, 2003

In my Backyard: Growing a Sense of Place in Bankside
"In the book you will discover: How a Bangladeshi garden group has helped create friendships, a sense of community and some tasty meals; Why sheep and goats were grazing in the middle of an inner-London local park; That Bankside used to be two riverside gardens, with orchards and vineyards." Posted March 3, 2003

Feast Your Eyes: The Unexpected Beauty of Vegetable Gardens
"Pennington tells a terrific story of the rise and fall of ornamental vegetable gardening between the seventeenth and the nineteenth centuries, and its comeback in the twentieth. The cast of supporting characters is made up of both familiar figures (Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Pope, etc.) and obscure heroes of horticulture and landscape architecture." Posted March 3, 2003

Training Organic Farmers & Gardeners: Resources for Instructors
This 600-page manual covers practical aspects of organic farming and gardening, applied soil science, and social and environmental issues in agriculture. Units contain lecture outlines for instructors and detailed lecture outlines for students, field and laboratory demonstrations, assessment questions, and annotated resource lists." (PDF edition available on-line) Posted March 3, 2003

Urban Cultivation In Accra: An Examination Of The Nature, Practices, Problems, Potentials And Urban Planning Implications
"Exotic vegetables and ornamental crops from Europe were purposely grown to feed the European settlers and to beautify their residences; the cultivation of vegetables was confined to the residences of European civil servants and merchants and the castles and forts which served as both the seat of government and the homes of the colonial administrators." Posted February 13, 2003

The Richmond Fruit Tree Project
"Plums, apples and pears are picked from August through into October from the gardens of Richmond residents. A fruit tree registry and a fruit identification program are in the works." Posted February 13, 2003

Changes In Official Attitudes Towards Urban Agriculture In Accra
"This paper is about urban agriculture, which is one of the most important informal sector activities chosen by urban dwellers in Accra. It explains why officials initially held negative attitudes toward urban agriculture. It also identifies the factors that contributed to changing official attitudes. It is noted that Ghanaian officials began supporting and even encouraging urban agriculture once they realized the importance of the practice." Posted February 13, 2003

Green Roofs
"They also create space for food production in the city. The herbs used on some 6000 meals a day served at Toronto's Royal York Hotel come fresh-picked from the hotel roof. In Vancouver, chefs at the Fairmont Waterfront Hotel help pay for the roofs over their heads by harvesting $30,0000 a year worth of food, including original marsh mallows used for exotic treats." Posted January 23, 2003

Ministry of Agriculture Allotment and Garden Guides - 1945
"A series of 8 pamphlets published by the U.K. Ministry of Agriculture at its wartime base at the Berri Court Hotel in Lytham St. Annes, Lancashire, England. The pamphlets were published for January through July and December 1945 ' help you to get better results from your vegetable plot and your fruit garden.' " Posted January 19, 2003

Microfarming at High Latitudes: A Resource for Small-scale, Cold-climate, Food security
"I'm also concerned mainly with special conditions encountered in cold weather climates at high latitudes, that is, above 40 degrees north latitude. I am located at 61 degrees 36 minutes north. Most of the garden books I've read dealing with northern climates, define the far north as the upper peninsula of Michigan. Most never venture into Canada, and very few even mention Alaska." Posted January 17, 2003

Introductory Manual for Greening Roofs
"This manual provides a practical introduction to building green roofs in Canada. It outlines the economic and environmental benefits to green roofs as well as barriers such as safety and maintenance issues. The manual gives a thorough discussion of design and construction considerations including loading, building codes, microclimate, membranes, growing medium and drainage."(PDF File) Posted January 17, 2003

Taiwan Urban Agriculture
"As you can see, despite the urban chaos, the steep slopes of the area allow for much of the space to be utilized for agriculture. Much of the green space that you can see has some kind of agriculture, whether it be food crops or flowers." (This travel journal will be updated over the next few months.) Posted January 8, 2003

Victory Garden Contest Winner 1942
"My grandfather (Jack Reading) won 1st prize in the 'Vancouver Sun' Victory Garden contest in 1942. I have photos of the garden, the prize letter from the Sun and the original newspaper clipping with all the various winners names." Posted December 28, 2002

Botswana Civic Leaders Visit Toronto Community Gardens
Solomon Boye, originally trained in his native Ghana, takes over. Gardens are wonderful for young people who are feeling lost and angry, he says. "We tell them that nature's laws are relentless; if you don't seed, you won't harvest, if you don't care for the plants, they will die. It is not adults who are demanding obedience. It is nature demanding cooperation." Posted December 27, 2002

City Farmer - Site to Visit - Garden Inspired Tourism
"Garden Inspired Tourism's mission is to act as a catalyst and to facilitate the development and promotion of BC as a globally recognized garden interest destination. Beautiful British Columbia offers year round garden interest with seasonal showings beginning as early as February and lingering on until November, and with unique winter gardens and festivals." Posted December 25, 2002

Southeast False Creek Urban Agriculture Strategy
"While the study of urban agriculture has gained considerable momentum in North America and elsewhere, and even become fashionable in recent years, this study may be the first of its kind in North America to focus solely on the role that food-related activity and urban agriculture could play in the comprehensive planning of a new neighbourhood." Posted December 15, 2002

A Training Manual on Urban And Peri-Urban Agriculture (For Nepal)
"The training manual has suggestions, ideas, recommendations and technologies which can contribute to UPA development in Nepal. Urban and Peri Urban Agriculture (UPA) has been in existence in Nepal since time immemorial. The Jyapus of Kathmandu were excellent producers of food in the valley. Similar groups are also found in other parts of Nepal. This training manual will present information which will help to improve traditional technologies. It will present new appropriate technologies which will be useful to the urban and peri-urban farmers in food production, processing, preservation and utilization. (21,000 words)" Posted December 10, 2002

Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture in Nepal (Partners and Expertise)
"Urban population is increasing in all the urban areas in Nepal. More satellite towns are getting established and older cities are getting more crowded. Traditional agricultural systems are changing. Farming in or around urban and peri urban areas is getting more sophisticated and focused. This publication can be a useful companion/reference material for anyone who is interested in urban and peri urban agriculture in Nepal. The names and addresses presented in this publication were collected from within the whole country. (12,000 words)" Posted December 10, 2002

Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture Directory (People, Organizations and Enterprises - Nepal)
"This is a directory of addresses of government departments, aid agencies, international and national non-governmental organizations, community based organizations, and individuals who are involved in urban and peri urban agriculture in Nepal. Urban and peri urban agriculture does not receive the importance it deserves from the government or other donor agencies because it is mostly practiced by the poorer section of the urban population. This group own small pieces of land, practice customary farming practices and produce food to meet the needs of the family and mainly of their traditional customers. (16,000 words)" Posted December 10, 2002

Call For Contributions, Urban Agriculture Magazine, No. 9, Financing Of Urban Agriculture
"Financing urban agriculture is broader than just the provision of credit to urban farmers. Next to formal credit, other forms of financing are considered, like informal loans, tax incentives, controlled land rent, subsidies on certain inputs, investment (of Government or private sector) in infrastructure or technologies, etcetera." Posted November 26, 2002

"Home Grown" by the Worldwatch Institute
"In the United States, food typically travels between 1,500 and 2,500 miles from farm to plate, as much as 25 percent farther than in 1980. For some, the long-distance food system offers unparalleled choice. But it often runs roughshod over local cuisines, varieties, and agriculture, while consuming staggering amounts of fuel, generating greenhouse gases, eroding the pleasures of face-to-face interactions around food, and compromising food security." Posted November 21, 2002

Urban Fringe Agriculture
Report of the Asian Productivity Organization (APO) Seminar on Urban Fringe Agriculture held in Tokyo from 17 to 24 May, 2000. Examples of Stories: Transition of Urban Farmland Policy and Development of New Urban Agriculture in Japan (Kenji Ishihara), and the Present Situation of Urban Agriculture and Related Problems (Mitsuzo Gotoh) Posted November 18, 2002

An Olympic Sized Urban Agriculture Idea from Greece

... from the Olympic Village Athens 2004 architectural team who prepared the greenest proposal... "Hydroponic plantations on the roof, fish farming for nitrate water purification, bioclimatic roads, active thermal capacity of the structure with use of inter-seasonal thermal storage, almost all of the architects aspirations are found in this proposal." Posted November 29, 2002

Community-Based Urban Agriculture As History And Future:
Jac Smit ... "It is clear reviewing 25 years of studies of urban agriculture that urban farming is expanding more rapidly than rural agriculture or agriculture as a whole. No surprise, it's happening in an urbanizing world. Agriculture is reinventing itself to fit the new reality of human settlement on the earth." Posted November 6, 2002

40% of Toronto Households Grow Food says City Farmer
"These figures represent more than two and one half million people in Greater Toronto and Vancouver who live in households growing vegetables, fruit, berries, nuts or herbs in their yard, balcony or community garden."" Posted November 6, 2002

City Farmer Cob Workshop: June 9 - June 15, 2003
One week intensive - limited enrollment - $400. City Farmer's Compost Demonstration Garden in Kitsilano is to be the site of Vancouver's first cob garden shed. Cob is an ancient building method using clay, sand and straw. Building with earthen materials pre-dates the pyramids.
Updated October 22, 2002

Philippine References - Urban Agriculture
12 papers and a book are referenced, including: "Allotment Gardens for the Philippines: A Contribution to Urban Food Security"; "Quality and quantity requirements for vegetables by private households, vendors and institutional users in a Philippine urban setting"; "Urban Agriculture - A Step-By-Step Guide To Successful Container Gardening in the City"; and "Appropriate methods for microenterprise development in urban agriculture". Posted October 21, 2002

The Urban Agriculture Network (UAN) President's Annual Report 2001/2002
"The importance of urban agriculture is becoming recognized as an important element of programs for not only food security, but also for sustainable urban development and efficient provision of the necessities to low-income families. UAN wants to expand its central coordinating role in making urban agriculture a reality throughout the world." Posted October 11, 2002

44% of Vancouver Households Grow Food says City Farmer
"This is the first time in Canadian history a question of this sort has been asked by a professional pollster and the result is significant," says Michael Levenston, Executive Director of the 25-year-old non-profit society based in Vancouver. "That figure represents more than three-quarters of a million people in Greater Vancouver who live in households growing vegetables, fruit, berries, nuts or herbs in their yard, balcony or community garden." Posted October 6, 2002

Toronto's Official Plan from the Perspective of Community Gardening and Urban Agriculture
"'Urban agriculture' is often viewed as an oxymoron. The city displaces agricultural land; it doesn't create it. Or so conventional wisdom would suggest. Yet, in cities around the world, urban agriculture and a city's role in supporting it, has gained new prominence." Posted October 3, 2002

A Deeper Ecology: Community Gardens in the Urban Environment
"In their article, Kameshwari Pothukuchi and Jerome L. Kaufman point out that it is the food system that is missing "from the writing of planning scholars, from the plans prepared by planning practitioners, and from the classrooms in which planning students are taught". Discounting the food system as part of a community development plan, which helps to strengthen the sense of place and belonging and aids in improving the overall environmental quality of an area, is an opportunity lost." Posted September 30, 2002

The Rural-Urban Interface, Idealistic Visions and Current Projects in Lisbon, Portugal And Santiago, Chile. -- La Interfase Urbano Rural, Idealidades Y Proyectos. Acerca De Los Casos De Lisboa, Portugal, Y Santiago De Chile.
12,000 word paper in Spanish. "Urban and peri-urban agriculture successful practises are presented as examples to be followed by other big cities, intended to reduce socio-economic differences, and to diminish the occurrence of hazards as floods, soil contamination, air pollution and green spaces retraction within metropolitan areas." Posted September 27, 2002

The Mango City: Urban Agriculture in Belém, Brazil
"It is a tribute paid to a hard working and ingenious people, who against all odds survive in one of the poorest metropolis in Latin America, frequently complementing their monthly income with fruits, herbs, spices, medicinal plants, and all sorts of animals, cropped or raised in front and backyards, in idle public and private plots, existent either within the urban tissue or in the wider peri-urban areas." Posted September 24, 2002

Inuvik Community Greenhouse - Arctic Food Growing!
Inuvik, which means "Living Place" in Inuvialuktun, is a town of 3200 in the upper corner of Canada's North West Territories. It enjoys 56 days of twenty-four hours of daylight (late June, July and part of August) and has 30 days without sunlight mostly in the month of December. "We are the most Northern commercial greenhouse in North America and the largest community greenhouse of it's kind on the planet." Updated December 3, 2002

Greensgrow Philadelphia Project
"Begun as a commercial hydroponics lettuce farm supplying high-end gourmet greens to restaurants, Greensgrow now operates a CSA and Farm Market while continuing to serve the Philadelphia restaurant community with the products of our and other local farms. We serve as a clearinghouse of information on urban agriculture issues [and] advocate adoption of urban agriculture as a tool for neighborhood redevelopment..." Posted September 19, 2002

Rural Allotments and Sustainable Development: A Japanese Perspective
"Allotment gardens first appeared in urban Japan in the 1920s (Kinoshima, 1994), and enjoyed only limited success, even in the preferred kleingarten model, prior to the Pacific War. With the outbreak of hostilities, the same enthusiasm for growing vegetables which had British and American gardeners "digging for victory" swept Japan as well, and vacant plots of land everywhere were brought into cultivation." Posted September 19, 2002

Tiny Bubbles to Make Your Garden Grow
"How much fuel energy does it take to grow tomatoes in a Lanark County greenhouse in January when it's, like, -10 C outside? Well, if you're Kathryn and Ross Elliott of "Lively Up" Winter Harvest, less than $6 a month worth, or about $70 a year. That's instead of an estimated $3,000 a year to run a comparably sized greenhouse heated with propane or natural gas." Posted September 16, 2002

Growing Gardens
"We serve the St Johns, north, inner north/northeast and outer southeast low-income areas of Portland, Oregon. Requests for gardeners come by word of mouth, presentations to groups such as the WIC (Women, Infant and Children) programs, as well as strategic contacts made by staff to housing agencies such as the Housing Authority of Portland and local public schools." Posted September 15, 2002

Vacant Land in Latin American Cities
"As long as significant amounts of urban land remain unoccupied, equally important numbers of poor urban residents will continue to occupy land lacking infrastructure of services, located in areas not appropriate for urban development. This pattern both creates precarious habitats and deepens the processes of socio-spatial segregation." Posted September 14, 2002

City of Vancouver May Ban Cosmetic Use of Pesticides on Lawns and Gardens.
"The use of Integrated Pest Management on public lands has illustrated that significant reductions in the use of pesticides on lawns and gardens can be achieved without sacrificing overall landscape quality. This direction would further reduce or eliminate both known or possible environmental and health risks." Council Decisions on Report. Updated September 16, 2002

Indigenous African Food Crops and Useful Plants: Their Preparation for Food, and Home Gardens
Here is a report with information on home gardens in Kenya, Edo and Delta States of Nigeria, Anambra, Enugu, Benue, and Kogi States of Nigeria, Southeastern Nigeria, Northern Nigeria, West Africa, Cameroon, and Ghana, Eastern and Southern Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Niger, Ethiopia, Ghana. The whole book is available as a PDF. Posted August 22, 2002

Transition to Ecological Urban Agriculture: A Challenge
Urban Agriculture Magazine May, No. 6, March 2002 "Ecological agriculture is seen as especially relevant to the urban setting. The introduction in rural settings of ecological practices is still debated, although it seems that the call for the coexistence of both conventional and ecological farming in an adequate mix seems to be the best option." Posted August 20, 2002

The Urban Farmers Almanac - A Journal of Post Punk Gardening
A new urban agriculture publication featuring stories titled Minneapolis Squatter Gardens, Small-Scale Urban Soybean Farming, and Low-Light Indoor Agriculture. The author "created this site... to serve as a psychological steam valve". "Everyday I spend festering in this rotten city working on my graduate degree (Masters of Agriculture in Horticulture) makes me more and more insane." Posted August 14, 2002

Evaluating the Potential of Green Roof Agriculture
"I established an experimental vegetable garden on the green roof of the Trent University Environmental Sciences building. I was looking at the suitability of green roofs for urban agriculture, comparing different crops and growing conditions." Posted July 28, 2002

Small-Scale Farming and Gardens in Urban and Rural Areas - Working Group, Humboldt University, Berlin
"Gardens and small-holders agriculture belong to the informal economy - newly rediscovered in the public discourse as a result of increasing joblessness. In the old society, yard and garden were indispensable parts of the oikos, as Otto Brunner called the 'whole house'. Still today gardens, small animal holding and self-subsistence agriculture belong to the domain of the home economy. Household and food growing constitute actually the primary, basic sector of the economy." Elisabeth Meyer-Renschhausen (In both German and English) Posted July 16, 2002

FAO Journal includes Urban Agriculture Articles
Food, Nutrition and Agriculture No. 29, 2001, includes articles such as "Cities of the Future: urban agriculture in the third millennium" and "Peri-urban agriculture in Delhi, India." "Farming, processing and selling food generates income for urban households and enables families to spend more on non-food items (e.g. transport, housing, school fees, health care), which can have an impact on nutritional status." Posted July 8, 2002

Nyanga Declaration on Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture in Zimbabwe
"Urging local authorities to promote Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture in their cities, develop appropriate incentives and other policies necessary for its growth, mainstream urban food security within their operations and promote the collection and dissemination of information on Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture activities in their territorial planning areas." Posted July 3, 2002

Why Hawked Milk Can Save Your Baby
"Historical and scientific evidence shows that, after boiling, milk can actually save, not kill, your baby by providing essential nutrients. If boiling milk were ineffective as implied in the article, most Kenyans who each day buy raw milk, boil and consume it would be sick each day. And as we all know from our own day-to-day experience, we do not get sick from drinking chai with maziwa." Posted July 3, 2002

Urban Agriculture Study - Consulting Services - RFP
"The City of Vancouver Engineering Services is inviting proposals for Professional Services to complete an Urban Agriculture Study for the proposed sustainable community to be located on the south east shore of False Creek near downtown Vancouver. The study will be incorporated into the Official Development Plan to direct development of the site including public infrastructure, private development, and community facilities." Posted June 28, 2002

"Return of Lenin" (to a Swedish allotment garden) - a short film
"In 1917 Lenin passed through Stockholm on his way to the Russian Revolution. Anna Lindhagen invited Lenin to the allotment gardens of "Barnangen" to show all its benefits. Lenin was totally unresponsive to this, - to poke in the soil was to prepare the ground for political laziness in the class struggle. The workers shouldn't be occupied, with gardening, they should rather devote themselves to the proletarian revolution. - " Posted June 17, 2002

City Farmer's Country Count
"Therefore City Farmer still has over 50 "countries" still to collect in order make sure everyone has heard about urban agriculture. Like stamp collectors we await the arrival of such rare finds as the Comoros(KM); the Holy See (Vatican City State)(VA); Kiribati(KI); Antarctica(AQ); and Western Sahara(EH)." Posted June 15, 2002

Urban Agriculture Now Includes Healthier Living
"The Americans are widening the definition of urban agriculture," Mr Wilson said. "They see it as part of promotion of better human health in cities, and one of the important answers to protecting the global environment. I will not be surprised to see urban agriculture become part of the US response to Japan's signing last week of the Kyoto Treaty on environmental protection," said Geoff Wilson, editor and publisher of Urban Agriculture Online Posted June 12, 2002

Human-Environment Research Laboratory (HERL) Studies the Relationship between People and the Physical Environment
"The impact of the physical environment on human aggression has been well-established - crowding, high temperatures, and noise have all been linked to violent behavior. Some scientists believe that it's because people living under these conditions suffer from something called chronic mental fatigue, which can make them inattentive, irritable, and impulsive - all of which can be linked to aggressive behavior. Exposure to green spaces, it has been shown, can mitigate the harmful effects of chronic mental fatigue, reducing aggressive behavior in the process."
Posted June 7, 2002

Proposed Community Garden Legislation in New York
"After more than a month of behind the scenes negotiation, members of the new NYC Council will file legislation that, if passed, can protect community gardens from development. The legislation being proposed will look different from the law that was introduced in the last Council. It now focuses on a stipulation that would turn the GreenThumb program into an independent public/ private partnership to act as a land trust for the preserved gardens."
Posted June 3, 2002

The War Garden Victorious
This rare book (1919), about the USA food gardening program during World War I, is being republished chapter by chapter on the Internet. "The United States government strongly encouraged everyone to plant a garden to provide their own food so that food, transportation and other resources could be freed up for the war effort." - "The sole aim of the National War Garden Commission was to arouse the patriots of America to the importance of putting all idle land to work, to teach them how to do it, and to educate them to conserve by canning and drying all food they could not use while fresh. The idea of the 'city farmer' came into being."
Posted June 1, 2002

Re-Vision Urban Farm
"Re-Vision Urban Farm is a project of Re-Vision House, a  shelter for homeless pregnant and parenting women and their children. We are a shelter-based, community supported urban farm growing organic produce and fish on reclaimed land which was once vacant lots." Posted May 23, 2002

Urban Agriculture and Community Food Security in the United States: Farming from the City Center To the Urban Fringe
The document advocates for policies that promote small-scale urban and peri-urban farming, and thereby prepare the next generation of urban farming leaders. The task is to increase public knowledge and support, in order to transform urban agriculture "from its cottage industry status into a major instrument against hunger and poverty." Posted May 23, 2002

E-Conference: Agricultural Use Of Untreated Urban Wastewater In Low Income Countries: 24 June - 5 July 2002
"The use of the urban wastewater in agriculture is a widely established practice, particularly so in urban and peri-urban areas of arid and seasonally arid zones. Wastewater is used as a source of irrigation water as well as a source of plant nutrients (such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) and trace elements (K, Na, etc) allowing farmers to reduce or even eliminate the purchase of chemical fertilizer and of organic matter that serves as a soil conditioner and humus replenisher Lunven (1992) estimated that one tenth or more of the world's population currently eats food produced on wastewater (but not always in a safe way)." Posted May 23, 2002

Urban Agriculture Online - a new magazine
Geoff Wilson, editor and publisher of Urban Agriculture Online said he chose to launch the online magazine at the 'Dallas Urban Agriculture Symposium' because he saw it as the most important global event in urban agriculture in 2002. "Many countries have endorsed urban agriculture as most complementary food production that well meshes with rural agriculture. They are seeing it as an important response to the world's rapid urbanization of rural areas, desertification, pollution of air and water, and the possible impact of bio-terrorism." Posted May 21, 2002

Vancouver Landscaper Moves from Power to Push Mowers
"But there is this one big lawn spreading between 5.5 acres of townhouses, parking lots and perennial beds. The lawn area itself represents probably a quarter of the property. No one thought this lawn could possibly be maintained with reel push mowers on a weekly basis." Posted May 6, 2002

Walled Kitchen Gardens
"They were like an early version of supermarkets. Nowadays, our food system is global. Food is flown in from far away, which is widely regarded as unsustainable. Walled kitchen gardens succeeded in growing this food at home, all-year-round. By developing techniques and technology that we rely upon today, walled kitchen gardens were intensive food factories that spearheaded our industrial food system." Posted May 2, 2002

Chinese, Japanese, German, Swedish, English Allotment Garden Reports
"In Japan allotment and community gardening have been paid striking attention to during the last two decades. For example, the number of allotment sites has increased and allotment gardens were given a legal basis. After World War II the primary objective of allotment gardens was to obtain food. This changed to recreation and to improvement of urban environments later on." Posted May 2, 2001

Community Greens: Shared Parks in Urban Blocks
"Community greens are shared parks tucked away on the inside of residential blocks. They are collectively owned and managed by the neighbors whose homes and backyards, decks, patios, and balconies enclose the green.These secret gardens bring neighbors together as they care for and enjoy their community green." Posted April 21, 2002

Pigs in Streets of Dili, East Timor
"Asked how many pigs were wandering around Dili, Mr. Da Silva said he wasn't sure. 'They are hard to avoid at times, choosing to cross roads when they please, bringing traffic to a halt. Initially I thought they didn't have owners, but they do. And people know exactly which ones belong to them,' he added, without explaining just how." Posted April 17, 2002

A Taste of Urban Agriculture in Havana - Tara's Latest Update
"Mosquitoes are no laughing matter here in Havana. In fact, there are armies - with uniforms to boot - of people employed to rid Cuba of the dreaded Dengue Fever. These people patrol the streets with huge machines that look a lot like leaf blowers. ...The warriors will then enter the house and spray every inch with a terrible white chemical that smells horrible and that no one can identify - not even the fumigation warriors who brave the terrible white fumes without even a gas mask." Updated April 16, 2002

Urban Agriculture: An Overview
Prepared for 'Both Ends'- which supports inspiring environmental initiatives all over the world. "This report provides in very general terms the key characteristics of UA and the barriers that hinder its promotion. It also outlines some of the work that NGOs have been doing with respect to UA. The last section offers some recommendations with respect to the role that NGOs can play in advancing UA." Posted April 14, 2002

Evaluating Voluntary Stormwater Management Initiatives in Urban Residential Areas
"In recent decades, stormwater runoff has emerged as an issue of major concern to water resource managers. Stormwater affects local waterways both in terms of the volume of runoff that is generated, and the nature of the pollutants that may be conveyed. Allowing stormwater to infiltrate in urban residential areas is one way of managing runoff at-source, and by doing so, preventing a wide variety of down-stream effects." (40,000 word Master's Thesis in PDF format) Posted March 29, 2002

Farm/Garden Land For Rent in Greater Vancouver
"The land is just off of River Road on the North Arm of the Fraser River. We are a 30 minute drive from Downtown Vancouver, (15 minutes if they are from the south end of Vancouver), as we are just off of the east/west connector." Posted March 28, 2002

Whose Garden Is It?
Governing Magazine/March 2002 - "Community gardens can help turn neighborhoods around. It's their very success that threatens them." - "The city accuses garden activists of being insensitive to the need for low-income housing; the activists say their views are being misrepresented. The city, says Aresh Javadi, director of a group called More Gardens, 'makes it sound as if it's housing versus gardens. That's wrong. It's both housing and gardens.'" Posted March 27, 2002

Food for Everyone Foundation
"Dr. Jacob Mittleider has spent decades teaching and growing all over the world, perfecting his incredible gardening techniques. Many organizations raise money to feed the hungry, however Dr. Mittleider lives by the profound maxim: "Give a man a fish, and he'll eat for a day; teach a man to fish and he'll feed his family for a lifetime." Because of this belief, Dr. Mittleider has dedicated his life to teaching people everywhere how to be self-sufficient by growing super high-yield gardens, even in small boxes or soil plots." Posted March 26, 2002

Urban Waste And Rural Farmers: Enabling Low-Cost Organic Waste Reuse In Developing Countries
"Farmers and animal husbanders in poor countries have acquired and continue to access urban organic wastes and to process and use them in various ways. Green wastes obtained from fruit and vegetable markets are used for animal fodder; food wastes from hotels, canteens and food processing industries are fed to pigs and goats; slaughterhouse wastes are processed for poultry feed"
Posted March 20, 2002

Common Ground Program & Mini- Ag Center (CGP) in Kenya
"I was able to stop working away from my farm as a wage laborer in Mumiasi to work full-time tending my one-acre farm. After receiving training in Biointensive practices my wife and I converted our conventionally cultivated farm to one using double-dug beds. This enabled us to produce surplus vegetables for sale in local markets. The income increased four times what it was as a day laborer and I am a much happier person working for myself. As a result I have trained 530 other families in my Community" Posted March 20, 2002

References Relevant To Urban Agriculture
Here you will find reports on topics related to urban agriculture. Updated March 9, 2002

GIS-based Urban Environmental Resources Management and Food Security Project, Cagayan de Oro, Philippines
"The project will establish a GIS-based urban environmental planning system in Cagayan de Oro through a participative process. It will address the needs of the community in terms of improved solid waste management linked with urban food security. The target groups are the urban poor, particularly the garbage pickers at the landfill site, and the marginal urban farmers. " Posted March 6, 2002

RUAF Urban Agriculture Film
"This video on Urban Agriculture has been produced to facilitate a greater understanding of urban agriculture among policy-makers, urban planners, NGOs, sectoral organisations and other people who can make a contribution to the integration of urban agriculture into urban policies, plans and development programmes." Posted March 4, 2002

Sweat Equity: a Film
"Sweat Equity is the first film produced by the Metro Farming Film Project. The documentary focuses on community gardening activism that was occurring throughout the City of Los Angeles during the years following the 1992 civic unrest. Grassroots actions by local leadership and the sweat equity of community people made it possible to reclaim abandoned land to create urban gardens. " Posted March 4, 2002

References Relevant To Urban Agriculture
Here you will find reports on topics related to urban agriculture. Updated March 9, 2002

Self-Sufficiency Plan for Copenhagen Suburb
"The Environment and Energy Centre (MEC) in Höje Taastrup (population 45,000), to the west of Copenhagen in Denmark, has developed a realistic plan to make the region self-sufficient in food. Double the percentage of garden owners who grow their own vegetables; Triple the number of allotments; Quintuple the number of people owning hens (5 per cent already do); Increase production of honey and strengthen bonds with nearby farms by getting more people to buy produce directly from them; or for people to buy their own animals and rent pasture from the farmers;" Posted March 2, 2002

City Farmer's Net Bulletin Board
As announcements of upcoming events cross my desk, I'll thumbtack them up here. Updated February 22, 2002

A Taste of Urban Agriculture in Havana
"So much of the food I love in Canada and eat regularly is sold in American dollars in Cuba and is therefore inaccessible to many Cubans and hard to find for people who do have dollars. Cheese is gold, eggs are diamonds, buns and rice are my sustenance, rum is blood. I realize now in a deeper sense that food does not exist without the people or animals that grow it or gather it, or process it." Posted February 13, 2002

Urban Agriculture in Thailand
"I find that practicing urban agrology has helped me integrate with Thai culture more easily as my neighbours have an excuse to come visit, talk, bring me their kitchen scraps, paint the sides of my planters, get their hands dirty, have their children feed the chickens, etc." Posted January 31, 2002

Restrictive Covenants on Animals in Urban Agriculture
"It began of course with conflicts between those who in past times kept animals for food and extra income. In my grandmother's day, women looked after chickens or other small animals in order to earn a small steady income they had exclusive control over. I am speaking of Massachusetts in the 1900s. Later, to end this practice, various legalities were brought to bear." Posted December 28, 2001

Jobs, Jobs, Jobs!
In answer to the many requests we receive for information about employment opportunities in urban agriculture, we have begun a page which lists job openings in this field. Updated March 18, 2002

Growing Sites: The Use of Gardening and Farming in Youth Development Projects
"Throughout North America, there is a growing movement of community-based youth farm and garden projects. Young people are participating in the transformation of their communities, as well as themselves by growing and distributing healthy, organic vegetables." (35,000 word thesis) Posted November 28, 2001

The German Allotment Gardens - a Model For Poverty Alleviation and Food Security in Southern African Cities?
"Conditions of hunger and poverty were widespread in Germany and other European countries nearly 200 years ago when the first "gardens for the poor" emerged. Rapid industrialisation, accompanied by urbanisation and migration, forced large numbers of people into dismal living conditions. Urban gardens were one official response. " Posted October 28, 2001

FAO's Horticultural Crops Group supports UPA
"City farmers have developed small and medium size market gardens specialising in the production of vegetables, fruits and root crops for sale on city markets. This activity is becoming more and more popular as it provides employment and income for women and young farmers." Posted September 28, 2001

Denmark's New Law About Community Gardens
"The status of the gardens will be radically changed as of November l, 2001: Previously the gardens had "temporary" status; after November 1 they will become "permanent" gardens - they will now be secure in the future." Posted September 21, 2001

Alice's Colony Garden in Holbaek, Denmark
"In my case I have ended up with a true jewel. The house is like a very tiny cottage, has a bedroom, dining room with table and chairs, a weeny kitchen with gas cooking-plates, and a sink." Posted September 21, 2001

The History of The Allotment Gardens in Copenhagen
"The allotment garden movement peaked during the Second World War with lOO,OOO gardens. After the war prosperity increased and the allotment gardens flourished. In the l960's however, when a private car became within reach for some people in Copenhagen, one just had to have a summer house, preferably on the North Coast about lOO kilomet- res away." Posted November 22, 2001

FAO's Food and Nutrition Division's latest Publications on Home Gardening
Home Gardening for Africa
Posted September 4, 2001

More Kenyans Consume Raw Milk Due to Poverty
"It is now official, more raw milk than processed milk is consumed not only in the rural areas in Kenya, but also in the urban centers including Nairobi, Kenya's capital city where 80% of all milk consumption is unprocessed. " Posted August 25, 2001

Cultivating Community Knowledge: Growing Food, Flower & Ethnobotanical Gardens with Street Children in Brazil.
"Creating community gardens costs very little money for the positive results it achieves for the people involved. Given the dangerous effects of pesticide residues on children's physical and intellectual development, an organically grown community garden provides inexpensive, vitamin rich food to the earth's most vulnerable citizens, the children." Posted August 22, 2001

Government Sets Urban Agriculture Program in Metro Manila
"Montemayor said potential sites for the urban agriculture program are schools, vacant lots and backyards, including subdivisions and public lots, individual homes and other available lands." Posted August 4, 2001

Asia Urbs Magazine Article on Feeding The Cities
See Issue No. 5, Summer 2001 (PDF format). "Importing food has always been a major activity of city life. But as the size of populations grows and the logistics become more complex, urban planners are having to address issues of food security. Vincent Rotgé, Asia Urbs Project Operations Manager, told an audience in Bangkok recently that the Asia Urbs Programme can play a key role in this area." Posted August 4, 2001

Wasabia Japonica
What is usually known as wasabi in North American restaurants, is actually horseradish powder (dried and ground regular horseradish), mustard powder, with a little cornstarch and artificial food coloring. Real wasabi, made from the wasabi plant (Wasabia japonica) a member of the cruciferous family, is native to Japan and is traditionally found growing in or by cold mountain streams. Updated July 11, 2001

Economic Costs and Benefits of Urban Agriculture in East London
"UA in East London is generally no longer a response to crises or 'coping strategy' as it once was during the first and second world wars and in previous centuries. Commercial activities are primarily motivated by profit although some producers, particularly organic, have a 'philosophy' attributed to their lives and see it more than simply a way to make money." Posted July 4, 2001

User Benefits of Urban Agriculture In Havana, Cuba
"In Havana, the popular garden movement occupies 8% of total urban land in agriculture (3.4% of total urban land) and is practiced by 18,000 gardeners who produce vegetables and fruit, and raise small livestock to increase food security and generate income. The purpose of this study was to provide estimates of the user benefits of UA, as well as qualitative and quantitative information related to this activity." Posted June 11, 2001

Community Agriculture in Metropolitan Sandwell: A realistic vision?
"Sandwell's history of highly polluting heavy industries has left a legacy of degraded and contaminated land that is difficult and expensive to reclaim for food and gardening projects. At the outset, the issue of land contamination was given high priority, and SUGS project workers undertook detailed site investigations as a first step in risk assessment." Updated April 8, 2001

Urban Agriculture And Sustainable Cities
"In the overwhelming and circular maze of problems that we face today, I see two key changes that are required: a reaffirmation of the value of small-scale businesses and communities, and the need to overcome individual apathy and make sustainable lifestyle choices on a personal level. While these are lofty goals which require both localized and systemic changes, I believe that the many facets of urban agriculture can begin to address these needs." Posted March 5, 2001

A Survey of Community Gardens in Upstate New York: Implications for Health Promotion and Community Development
"Community gardens involve the main characteristics that have been described as important for health promotion in minority communities; these are social support, an emphasis on informal networks, and community organizing through 'multiple change tactics'". Posted March 1, 2001

A Brisbane Community Garden, Australia
Gardening In The Street: Sociality, Production and Consumption in Northey Street City Farm. "From a sociological viewpoint, the notion and practice of urban agriculture challenges the traditional urban-rural dichotomy, that is, the geographical differentiation of labour between food producers in rural areas, and non-food producers in urban areas. This blurring of rural-urban boundaries has postmodernist connotations." (thesis 23,000 words) Posted February 10, 2001

Solid Waste Reuse And Urban Agriculture--Dilemmas In Developing Countries: The Bad News And The Good News
"Urban waste reduction and reuse involves, among other things, composting of urban organic wastes (especially in cities of developing countries where the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) is high) and the feeding of kitchen and food wastes to domestic animals and livestock. Discussions of urban agriculture (UA) frequently point out that city farming often absorbs urban solid waste, thus reducing the volume of waste and the need to collect and transport wastes to distant dumps. In practice, urban farmers in many cities acquire municipal wastes as resources." Posted January 15, 2001

Anaerobic Digestion in Rural China
"Since the 1970s, China has been promoting the use of underground, individual household scale, anaerobic digesters to process rural organic wastes. There are approximately 5,000,000 households using anaerobic digesters in China. The digesters produce biogas that is used as an energy source by the households, and produce fertilizer that is used in agricultural production. " Posted January 15, 2001

Urban Farmers in Nakuru, Kenya
"According to the municipal by-laws, farming practices are forbidden within the town's boundaries. The problem for the municipality is that the enforcement capacity is too small; hence, farming in town has become a very common phenomenon. Nowadays, the municipality allows crop cultivation as long as the crop is less than one metre high. Although that excludes maize, even this crop can be seen everywhere. Most people cultivate the common food crops, mostly for their own consumption." (large download - over 22,000 words) Posted January 10, 2001

Alleviating Poverty In Maputo, Mozambique
"Peri-urban agriculture, on the contrary, is an economical and environmentally sustainable and increasingly important occupation in Maputo. The authors explain the trends of these production activities developed after the independence on the outskirts of the capital-city, emphasising the decisive role of the General Cooperatives Union, which nowadays counts 6 200 members, cropping about 2 100 ha of arable land, technically oriented and socially supported by the organization, and namely constituted by women and children." Posted January 8, 2001

Family Allotment Gardens in Georgia: Introduction of a European Model for Community Food Security In Urban Areas
"The neighborhood that was finally chosen for implementing the project was a high-rise district with a majority of unemployed and poor families. It was near the river, where a city sub-district office was located. This building was put at our disposal for meetings with the families who would participate in the scheme." Posted January 6, 2001

Women in Agriculture Conference - Introduction to UA
This is a transcript of a talk given by Jac Smit of the Urban Agriculture Network, Judy Tiger from Garden Resources of Washington, and Allison Meyers the Chicago field representative for the Heffer Project. Posted November 21, 2000

Urban Agriculture in St Petersburg - Russian Federation
This is Case Study 1 in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Series on Urban Food Security. "A retired pensioner, Ms Alla Sokol, the former chief engineer of a flower company, was the first enthusiast to take on the responsibility of starting a new roof top garden in her house. She decided to supply those who did not have access to dacha plots with fresh vegetables and greens. They could buy her produce at very moderate prices. "(Also in Russian)(Slow Download) Posted October 30, 2000

Urban Agriculture in the City of Winnipeg - Four Case Studies
"For equipment Growing Prospects Inc. (GPI) cultivated a unique relationship with City of Winnipeg police and their cache of confiscated hydroponics equipment for which they had little storage and no manpower to supervise. ... Under the Health Canada seized property protectorate, GPI would be able to absorb the equipment and disperse it to the more than seventy schools in the province of Manitoba who want it to implement hydroponics programs." Posted October 8, 2000

Inuvik Community Greenhouse - Arctic Food Growing!
Inivik, which means "Living Place" in Inuvialuktun, is a town of 3200 in the upper corner of Canada's North West Territories. It enjoys 56 days of twenty-four hours of daylight (late June, July and part of August) and has 30 days without sunlight mostly in the month of December. "We are the most Northern commercial greenhouse in North America and the largest community greenhouse of it's kind on the planet." Posted September 29, 2000

Native Crops Project For Hull's Field
"Traditional food plants of this region were once used extensively by First Nations people and to a lesser degree by early settlers. However, their use quickly declined with the rapid influx of non-native species from the Old World and South and Central America. This current lack of representation in the food market is by no means due to any natural deficiency, on the contrary, there is a wealth of healthy, flavourful, and unique food items waiting to realize their potential once again." Tatiana M. Montgomery Posted September 20, 2000

The Food System: A Stranger to the Planning Field
"We present evidence for the limited presence of the food system in planning's list of concerns by scanning leading journals, texts, and classic writings, and reporting on a survey of 22 U.S. city planning agencies. We analyze this low level of attention and discuss reasons and ideas for planning involvement to strengthen community food systems." Kameshwari Pothukuchi and Jerome L. Kaufman Posted September 19, 2000

Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture on the Policy Agenda
"Virtual conference and information market - 21 August to 30 September 2000. The conference invites everybody interested in urban and peri-urban agriculture and especially urban planners and municipalities, researchers and practitioners to participate by sharing needs, research results, questions, and project ideas." Posted July 27, 2000

The Grandview U'uqinak'uuh Community Schoolyard
Includes: the community garden, the bosque, the outdoor classroom, the feature landmark, the school garden, the butterfly garden, the hummingbird garden, the Mound, the dissipation pond, and the ethnobotanical garden. Posted January 26, 2000

"Neighbourgardens was established in Vancouver to connect land-owners who have garden space they do not use, with land-less gardeners who would like the use of a garden, primarily to grow fresh vegetables in." Updated March 13, 2000

Sustainability from the children's perspective - A journey through the landscape of German children's city farms
"In a survey among city farms and farm like projects in six European countries, I found that projects with just 1 hectare (2,5 acres) size host as many as 60.000 visitors a year. The numbers of visitors tend to increase up to a size of 2 hectares (with 200.000 vistors a year)." Oliver Ginsberg Posted September 18, 2000

Adventure playgrounds and city farms in Europe and what they contribute to sustainable urban development.
A comparative survey on adventure playgrounds and city farms in 6 European countries (Denmark, UK, The Netherlands, France, Switzerland & Germany) in English and German. Posted September 18, 2000

Rediscovering the Animation Playground
Landscape Architect, Oliver Ginsberg in Berlin, Germany wrote this research paper on the contribution of adventure playgrounds and city farms to sustainable development in Europe. Posted January 25, 1999

*** Most Recent Pages and Links Added (by Date) ***

Involving Children In Children's Gardens - Farm In The City
"The mission of Farm in the City was to educate children about the environment, food, creativity, and the importance of diversity, in our communities and in the natural world." (6,000 words) Posted January 27, 1999

Farming Inside Cities: Entrepreneurial Urban Agriculture in the United States
46,000 word research paper by Jerry Kaufman and Martin Bailkey. "The report investigates the nature and characteristics of for-market city farming, obstacles to such activities, and ways of overcoming these obstacles. It also offers proponents of urban agriculture suggestions to advance the cause of city farming in environments where many are either uninformed of the multiple benefits of entrepreneurial urban agriculture, disinterested, or skeptical about its durability and longer lasting significance.". Posted September 12, 2000

Introducing Simplified Hydroponics in Manila Philippines, Payatas, Quezon City
"Community response after tragedy. ... The project aims to introduce, develop and promote community-based and at low-cost hydroponically grown food production, in particular vegetables, among poor Filipinos residing in the urban areas. It will enable these sectors to produce hydroponically-grown crops all year round for themselves and their neighboring communities, allowing them to meet their own nutritional requirements and complement to their daily income." . Posted September 12, 2000

Achieving Urban Food and Nutrition Security in the Developing World
"In a recently released set of policy briefs from the International Food Policy Research Institute's (IFPRI) 2020 Vision Initiative, distinguished experts examine the key factors influencing and shaping future urban poverty, hunger, and malnutrition, and suggest policies and programs to achieve urban food and nutrition security." Example brief: "Hidden significance of urban agriculture". Posted August 30, 2000

Home-based Food Production in Urban Jamaica
"The project began in October 1997 and seeks to improve food security through increasing vegetable and poultry production. Twenty women are raising chickens for sale and home consumption. Women used their own resources to build chicken coops and were assisted with inputs and technical advice for raising chicks. The vegetable component of the project began in April 1999. Women involved in vegetable growing received agricultural inputs for growing callaloo (a green leafy vegetable), pakchoi, tomatoes, sweet pepper and cucumber." Updated November 26, 2001

The Fruit Tree Project
"The Fruit Tree Project connects people who have fruit trees, people who can help harvest fruit, and community groups that use fruit in their programs. ... Each year thousands of pounds of apples, pears, plums and cherries fall to the ground and rot in City of Vancouver backyards. ... In 1999, the first year of the project, volunteers harvested and distributed 2000 pounds of fruit from local backyards. Most of the fruit was given to the Vancouver Food Bank and Community Kitchens." Posted August 15, 2000

Municipal Organic Waste Recycling for Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture in Africa and Asia
"Regarding the high price of industrial fertilizers, organic waste stream products generated in the urban and peri-urban areas are considered as valuable nutrient sources for crop production, especially for high-value crops (e.g. vegetables, ornamental plants) and for urban gardens and recreation areas." Posted August 12, 2000

Vegetable Production on Open Spaces in Dar es Salaam - Spatial Changes from 1992 to 1999
"Almost 650 ha of the urban area of Dar es Salaam are currently used for vegetable production on open spaces, which is equivalent to 4% of the whole surveyed area, offering employment for over 4000 farmers. From these 650 ha, 12% are privately owned land, 48% are institutionally and 40% publicly owned." (16,000 words) Posted July 28, 2000

Urban Food and Nutrition Action Plan (WHO European Region)
See link to PDF file part way down page. "Cities produce enormous amounts of waste, and this waste is usually transported as far away and as cheaply as possibly. Urban food growers have the potential to transform organic waste, storm water and treated grey-water and recycle it for use in food production. Urban organic waste (solid and water) can be used as a productive resource and moreover the energy used in packaging and transporting food can be reduced." Posted July 26, 2000

Gardening Questions? Visit one of these sites.
The Internet is a treasure chest full of gardening secrets and these excellent sites will link you to many of them.

How the Wasp was Done
"I have some sympathy and admiration for wasps, I truly do. The non-union worker females bust a gut on gruelling 17 hour day flying missions gathering various insects - many of which are plant parasites - for the high protein diet needed by the larvae, and making paper from plant material such as dead weed stalks. The stings aren't mainly for our benefit but to subdue any large prey reluctant to become baby food." Posted July 15, 2000

Travelling in Asia - Urban Agriculture Journal - by April Richards
"My first morning in Beijing was spent walking around the neighborhood of Haidan on the northwest corner of the city. Following the oncoming streams of bicyclists toting baskets full of fresh produce to their origin, I found two separate open-air markets. The stalls of these markets were filled with green peppers, scallions, lychee, melons, bok choy, daikon, celery, various dried beans, sunflower seeds, eggs, wheat noodles, live fish, chickens, ducks, and butchered pork amongst other things that I have yet to identify." Posted June 27, 2000

Urban Agriculture - Justification and Planning Guidelines
"The authors want to show that planned and guided support of urban agriculture can be an effective tool to buffer hardships for vulnerable urban groups and create a better urban habitat." The study is based on the experiences of the Urban Vegetable Promotion Project ... and draws additional information extracted from 20 papers on city case studies on urban agriculture world-wide. [13,000 words] Posted June 21, 2000

Gaza Urban Agriculture Committee (GUAC), a Palestinian Agricultural Relief Committee
"GUAC has managed to implement some important and basic activities since the beginning of the year 1999, such as; producing the first book of its kind in the country about the Future of Urban Agriculture in Gaza Strip; starting up local contacts to establish a local network for UA in Gaza; furnishing two local gardens and 15 houses and three schools with fruitful trees, shade trees, seeds and seedlings." Posted June 14, 2000

Urban and Peri-Urban Forestry: Case Studies in Developing Countries
"FAO's work in urban and peri-urban forestry aims to integrate the environmental, social and economic role of trees and forests in an urban environment in light of the rapid urbanisation processes, migration fluxes and impact of cities on the rural environment. Efforts have been concentrated on examining the potential role of urban forestry in developing countries, on increasing awareness of the issue, on developing practical techniques, providing policy advice to city planners, and on improving documentation and overall accessibility to information on the subject." Posted April 5, 2000

International Symposium: Urban Agriculture and Horticulture - The Linkage with Urban Planning
Domäne Dahlem, Berlin, 7.-9. July, 2000. "Most of highly developed ancient societies benefitted from the advantages of urban gardens. Modern societies, though much more urbanized, generally forgot about this rich culture. Only very recently, faced with increasing poverty and ecological degradation, the potentials of Urban Agriculture and Horticulture are being rediscovered." Posted March 26, 2000

In the United Kingdom, The National Society of Allotment And Leisure Gardeners Ltd. (NSALG) Serves Gardeners
The NSALG is the representative body for Allotments in the UK. With over 80,000 members and 1600 affiliated societies it is the largest and most respected organisation of its type in the country. Allotments are being built on every day in every part of the country. There has been a fall in allotment provision of over 40% in the last two decades. Posted March 20, 2000

Simplified Hydroponics in Urban Agriculture
Peggy Bradley introduces us to home hydroponics systems by describing working examples from around the world. Peggy Bradley and Cesar Marulanda have just published Home Hydroponic Gardens. "Simplified hydroponics is a vegetable production method that utilizes modern day hydroponic technology adapted for areas with limited resources. This technology is based on minimal inputs, requiring no pumps, energy, or expensive equipment." Posted March 14, 2000

Manual on Hydroponics by Fao
The book La Huerta Hidroponica Popular by C.Marulanda and J.Izquierdo published by FAO in 1991, reviewed by J.Izquierdo in 1998, is available as a PDF document. The English and Portuguese versions are also available on paper at request. An audio-visual (video) training course with nine classes, available in Spanish and Portuguese, is also available upon request to the FAO Office.Updated March 27, 2000

Update...New York Community Gardens Threatened With Destruction
New York gardeners are battling to preseve their community gardens as City Hall attempts to auction off city owned lots, on which many gardens rest. Various sources. "...By 3:15 a.m., the police began towing away cars on the street, while the protesters gathered around a fire. By 7 a.m., the crowd of protesters had grown to 150. They chanted: 'New York City has got to breathe. More gardens, more peace.' " Updated February 18, 2000

Peri-urban Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa
Cirad, Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement, has published the proceedings of CIRAD/CORAF workshop on periurban agriculture in sub-saharan Africa (20-24 April, 1998) Updated February 14, 2000

Le péri-urbain en Afrique : une agriculture en marge?
par Paule Moustier et Jacques Pagès. 1. Le constat d'une agriculture marginalisée à promouvoir 2. Le péri-urbain à sa juste place 3. Quelques éléments de conclusion Posted January 25, 2000

Urban Agriculture Agrotechnology Park Study Tour
Singapore Tropical Hydroponic Study Tour, August 27 to September 3, 2000. See the new opportunities for hydroponics in urban farming's agrotechnology parks and rooftop farming and rooftop and indoor gardening. Posted February 12, 2000

Roofwater Fish Farm Ideal For Learning
"Scientist Vivienne Hallman on periurban acres at Figtree Pocket, 10 kilometres from the Brisbane, CBD Australia, is proving that urban fringe farmers can grow native fish successfully on natural foods. Most of the water can come from a home rooftop. Much of the fish food can be home-grown earthworms and insect larvae." Posted February 12, 2000

An Urban Rooftop Integrated Microfarm For Mt.Gravatt's Commercial Buildings (Australia)
"Key technologies, such as hydroponics, aquaculture, aquaponics, vermiculture, and very small animal husbandry can now be integrated safely and economically into modern urban rooftop microfarms which can: A. Take food wastes from local restaurants and food shops. B. Put them through a biogas digester to eliminate pathogens and other harmful micro-organisms. C. Use advanced vermiculture to create nutrients for fish and plants from the sterilised food wastes. D. Grow fish, crustaceans, herbs, salad vegetables and selected small animals (such as quails and meat rabbits) for sale to local restaurants or food stores." Posted February 12, 2000

This Urban Fringe Farm Is Worth Adapting
"The Laredo Demonstration Farm, an urban farm in Texas, teaches students about the successful integration of farming systems with waste management. Exciting features include: Worms for fish and poultry food. Insect and insect larvae production for fish food. Harvesting of wind energy. Production of biofuels, such as methane. Fish production. Agroforestry combining fruit trees with vegetable growing. Solar refrigeration. Food processing." Posted February 12, 2000

Oval Pipes Make Sense For Tropics
"Oval pipes make great sense for hydroponics in the tropics and sub-tropics. ... Using such technology, microfarms around peri-urban areas, or on commercial rooftops in shopping strips or shopping malls, could be the future for a great deal of fresh vegetable production." Posted February 12, 2000

Singapore's Aero-Green Pioneers Tropical Aeroponics
"One of the most interesting concepts mooted for Singapore is rooftop gardening and farming using aeroponics. Professor Lee Sing Kong, the academic who has led Singapore's aeroponic development, is a long-term advocate of better use of rooftops through plant growing for aesthetics, better energy conservation and improved food production. The aeroponic technology has significant advantages in reduced weight for rooftops, plus greater versatility for vertical or sloping walls of buildings that face the sun." Posted February 12, 2000

Urban Agriculture -- Is It For Real?
March 6th, 2000, Philadelphia "A conference that looks at Entrepreneurial Urban Agriculture in North America: what the studies say, who's doing it, and who's actually making money at it? Where do the opportunities lie, what are the obstacles, and what really makes it work?" Posted January 25, 2000

The United Nations University Press - Food and Nutrition Bulletins, 1985, 1987
These valuable, early papers on Urban Agriculture, look at food gardens around the world. Northern Colombia; Lima, Peru; Lusaka, Zambia; Chagga home gardens, Northern Tanzani; Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea; Javanese home garden; West Indian kitchen gardens; Newfoundland; Poland. Posted January 27, 2000

Backyard Farmers May Hold Major Piece of World Food Puzzle
"As urban populations grow at unprecedented rates here and around the globe, city farmers are becoming more and more important. Under a new initiative launched by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) in Washington, some of the world's leading agricultural scientists will be looking for ways to help those farmers play an even bigger role. The $500,000 Global Strategic Initiative on Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture will link several of the CGIAR's 16 research centers with international aid agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and research networks in Latin America, Africa, and Asia." Posted January 20, 2000

The Urban Agriculture Network - Western Pacific. (Covering Australia, New Zealand, Pacifc islands, and South East Asia)
An office of the Urban Agriculture Network (TUAN) has been set up to begin work in the Western Pacific region. "According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, about 2.5 million Australian households (about 35%) grow some of their own fruit and vegetables. This is estimated to be about 110,000 tonnes of fruit and about 153,000 tonnes of vegetables a year. About 80,000 Australian households have poultry that produce around 2,000 tonnes of meat and more than 26 million dozen eggs." Updated January 23, 2001

The Urban Agriculture Network (TUAN): 1999 Activity Report
"In North America, the average food item on a store shelf has traveled 2,000 kilometers and has cost eight fossil-fuel calories to deliver one food calorie. In contrast, one report has shown urban production of perishable foods in central Europe to deliver eight food calories with the consumption of one fossil food calorie." Posted January 6, 2000

2nd Edition of Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities is in the works!
Authors want to know how you would improve the first edition, by bringing to their attention gaps or errors you may have spotted in the original publication. Posted October 15, 1999

Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities
Landmark publication released in February 1996 by the United Nations Development Programme. Written by Jac Smit and his team at the Washington based Urban Agriculture Network, this book marks the beginning of a new age in the development of Urban Agriculture.

21st Century Cities
What Would the World be Like in the 21st Century if Cities Were Nutritionally Self-Reliant? Paper delivered by Jac Smit in Marmaris, Turkey on April 20, 1996

Seed Suppliers for Developing Countries
"We have a seed breeding company in Vietnam and a farm in Indonesia for high quality seed production. Some of our varieties provide outstanding performance for growing in the lowlands and highlands. For instance, we have bred tomato varieties that can be cultivated in the Mekong Delta under 45oC and heavy rains, so that the farmers can grow them all year round. " Updated January 4, 2000

*** Most Recent Pages and Links Added (by Date) ***

Lettuce Link
"Lettuce Link began in 1988 in an effort to improve the nutritional opportunities of low-income people. The program aimed to address hunger in Seattle through garden development in low income communities, basic garden education, seed and plant distribution at food banks, and coordination of produce donations from the Seattle P-Patch Program." Posted December 20, 1999

Rooftop Gardening in St. Petersburg, Russia
"This year we also started a ground level garden in the Artificial Limb Institute which rehabilitates invalids who lost legs or arms in the War in Chechnia (mostly boys of age 18-25)."

Annex Organics' Rooftop Farming Business
"Toronto's Annex Organics is growing 25 rare types of tomatoes and 10 varieties of hot peppers, along with various tomatillos and cape gooseberries. All of their produce is certified organic. " Posted February 15, 1999

Green Roofs Cool City Rooftop Gardens in Chicago to Fight Smog, Heat
"The city environment department plans to plant gardens atop several city buildings this summer as part of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency program studying ways to help cool cities and reduce smog." Updated April 23, 1999

Rooftop Gardens
Toronto's Rooftop Gardens Resource Group delves into roofing, structural considerations and building codes.

Masters Thesis: The Potential of Rooftop Gardening
Joseph St. Lawrence has written eloquently about his work creating a roof garden on a warehouse in downtown Toronto. We have published 15,000 words of his 22,000 word paper.

Cuba Goes Green: Government-Run Vegetable Gardens Sprout in Cities Across Island
"Venezuela's populist president, Hugo Chavez, discussed the gardens with President Fidel Castro. He said he is considering a similar strategy to make food staples more available and provide another source of employment in metropolitan areas in a country where an estimated 80 percent of the population lives in poverty. Posted December 1, 1999

Cienfuegos, the Capital of Urban Agriculture in Cuba
Professor Alejandro R. Socorro Castro shares with us his research. Includes four tables and seven excellent photos. Posted February 2, 1999

Article about Cuba's Urban Gardens by the World Sustainable Agriculture Association
"In 1995, there were an estimated 26,600 popular garden parcels (parcelas) throughout the 43 urban districts that make up Havana's 15 municipalities."

CityHarvest: The feasibility of growing more food in London
New, 1999 report by Tara Garnett of the Sustain Organization. "Using a productivity level of 10.7 tonnes/ha drawn from research into allotment yields, London could produce around 232,000 tonnes of fruit and vegetables. Taking the World Health Organisation's recommendation that we should eat around 0.5kg of fruit and vegetables a day (five portions), the amount potentially available would supply Londoners with 18% of their daily intake - roughly one of the recommended five portions a day." Updated November 7, 1999

City Farms in United Kingdom
Things you can do here include: daily feeding and mucking out, milking and cheese making, beekeeping and general animal care.

Urban Agriculture In Europe: Bulletins
The ETC in the Netherlands has published three bulletins from the European Support Group on Urban Agriculture (ESGUA). The just published, third issue of the bulletin focuses on urban forestry in Europe. Updated May 14, 1998

European Federation Of City Farms
Find organizations in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Greece. Read the EFCF's philosophy in their "City Farms, a bridge between agriculture and citizen" and "We are a part of the earth and the earth is a part of us." Posted December 10, 1998

Cities Feeding People Homepage
This site provides information about the program initiative on urban agriculture (UA) at Canada's International Development Research Centre. UA projects in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Morocco, India, Cambodia, Kenya, Ghana, are described. The site also describes a Latin American UA organization named AGUILA currently grouping nearly 40 institutions from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay and Peru.

Urban Food Production: Evolution, Official Support and Significance by Luc J.A. Mougeot
A major paper (16,479 words) by the Senior Program Officer, Environment and Natural Resources Division at Canada's IDRC.

International Group Supports Urban Agriculture:
Urban agriculture group forms a Global Facility: to reduce food insecurity, create jobs and improve the environment in cities. A new WWW site introduces the work of the international Support Group for Urban Agriculture (SGUA).

Urban Agriculture a Global Initiative
New brochure introducing an international effort by CARE International, City Farmer, Developing Countries Farm Radio Network, DGlS (Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs), ETC Netherlands, FAO (UN Food and Agriculture Organization), GTZ (German Technical Cooperation), lDRC (International Development Research Centre), lFPRl (International Food Policy Research Institute), NRl (Natural Resources International) TUAN (The Urban Agriculture Network), UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), World Bank, World Sustainable Agriculture Association, Members of the academic community. July 1997.

Mayors Discuss Urban Agriculture at the United Nations
Urban Agriculture For Food Security, Jobs And Waste Recovery: Roundtable of Top Local Government Officials, 29 July 1997

Towards the Establishment of a Development and Research/Training Network on Urban Agriculture for East And Southern Africa (UANESA)
UNNESA's founding members include Kenya, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and the Republic of South Africa (English-speaking African countries). A similar network is being developed by French-speaking African countries (West-Central Africa). Posted Oct 7, 1999

Agriculture Urbaine, Rapports Sociaux Et Citoyenneté: le cas du jardinage biologique communautaire au Québec et au Mexique
"This paper contains an analytical description of four community garden initiatives from the areas studied. Two of the gardens are aimed mainly at providing food security while the other two were created to promote local social development." In French (25,000 words) Posted October 8, 1999

Synopsis of Workshop on Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture - August, 1999 Accra, Ghana
The workshop theme was: "Closing the nutrient cycle for urban food security and environmental protection". Among the farmer participants were the "best urban" and "best peri-urban" farmers of Accra and Kumasi. The workshop was limited to 60 participants. Two-thirds came from Africa (Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo), one third from Europe (Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, The Netherlands), Thailand, USA, and Canada. Updated August 28, 1999

New York City Rooftop Beekeepers Defy Law to Get That Sweet Central Park Bouquet
"The city's urban bee mavens inhabit their own entomological universe... There are puns about the, well, plight of the bumblebee and requests to 'lend me your comb'; and, yes, there are questions about whether to bee or not to bee." Posted July 21, 1999

Anacostia's 'Urban Oasis' - Community Farm Thrives On Help of Neighborhood And Corporate Volunteers
"This is a community garden with a goal: providing vegetables, herbs and flowers for people who live in Anacostia (Washington DC) which lost its last supermarket in October, a Safeway near St. Elizabeths. For the many neighborhood residents who do not own cars, it's a two- or three-mile bus or taxi ride to the nearest full-service market unless they go to small corner stores instead. " Posted July 14, 1999

Plastic Wading Pools Make Excellent Container Gardens
"Dr. Ebenezer set about to prove the feasibility of growing vegetables in plastic wading pools. In 1997, gardeners harvested 984 pounds of vegetables from 38 pools in an area measuring 1,625 square feet. The urban agriculture project of the ELCA demonstrates how fresh, healthy vegetables can be grown inexpensively in containers virtually anywhere -- at the edges of parking lots; along railroad tracks; on back porches; on rooftops; in patios; in driveways; and in vacant lots between buildings." Posted July 9, 1999

Two other useful container gardening sites:
Suite101 Container Gardening

Urban Agriculture and Feeding Latin American and Caribbean Cities
"The project will facilitate a formal interaction between regional networks of experts in urban agriculture and of local authorities interested in sharing experiences or in phasing urban agriculture activities into local agenda to better address urban poverty, food insecurity, unemployment , gender inequity, environmental degradation and rural-urban tensions. Results will be edited, published and disseminated to municipal urban actors and others throughout the Region. " Posted July 9, 1999

Seminario Internacional Sobre Desarrollo Sustentable Y Agricultura Urbana
19-23 de Julio de 1999 México D.F.

Sponsored by Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana and Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación (FAO) Posted June 21, 1999

Urbanites Enjoy Life 'Down on the Farm' - in San Francisco
"More likely to be seen are farms like the garden lovingly tended by Eva Moen, proprietor of Wheat Grass Farm and Depot on 15th Street. Her 75- by 45-foot back yard is a burst of primary colors, a bright red patio jammed with white shelves of sprouting green wheat. Moen, 59, takes care of the planting, watering and marketing of 350 flats a week of the green sprouts." Posted June 8, 1999

An Agro-Silvo-Pastoral System In The South-East Of Mexico City, And Policy Considerations For Peri-Urban Agriculture.
"Focussing on the mountainous area to the south-east of Mexico City, policies related to agriculture, urban development and environment are outlined, and criticised for assuming that the aims of each are mutually exclusive." Posted June 3, 1999

*** Most Recent Pages and Links Added (by Date) ***

Suburban Livestock Rearing by Smallholders in the Backyards of Xochimilco, Mexico
"The sale of pigs in Xochimilco has, as its prime objectives, the production of meat and bi-products for self-consumption, as well as to provide resources to increase family income." Posted September 10, 1998

Procesos Metropolitanos Y Agricultura Urbana En México
Pablo A. Torres Lima of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco sent this 221 page manuscript to us which includes 18 papers. The Table of Contents has been placed on our site. Posted July 30, 1998

Urban Agriculture in Mexico City
"Our research has reported that producers keep an average of 3 pigs and 26 birds per household, but there are some individuals who manage up to 60 pigs, all kept within the family. ... Their nutrition is based on the use of food wastes available from the city including kitchen wastes, stale bread and tortilla, left-over tortilla dough, chicken guts, and fruit and vegetable wastes from the markets, amounting to 4000 tonnes per day."


The 1999 Resource Guide on Urban Agriculture (277 pages), prepared by the ETC for the Technical Centre for Agriculture and Rural Cooperation in the Netherlands, reviews City Farmer's web site:

"In our opinion, simply the best web site on the topic of urban agriculture, collecting valuable information on the Internet, difficult to find elsewhere. The homepage is regularly updated and contains general information on Urban Agriculture in both developing and developed countries, articles, conference announcements, resources and provides links to other relevant Internet sites. Everybody is free to send interesting information to the web site where it is quickly placed and edited. One is able to find information varying from research and policy discussions to composting, vermiculture and community gardens. The site is well organised and easily accessible."

Farmers in British Columbia Connecting with City Farmers
Shopping for farm fresh produce, nursery stock, or dairy items with that incomparable British Columbia quality? Here are some guides to help you buy at the farm gate. Updated May 28, 1999

Urban Growth: Urban Agriculture at South East False Creek
Alexander F. Kurnicki shares with us his Bachelor of Landscape Architecture Program graduation thesis. "The City of Vancouver sponsored project to create a sustainable community at South East False Creek (SEFC) offers us an opportunity to raise the profile of urban agriculture in Vancouver." (14,000 words) Posted May 17, 1999

Wasted Agriculture: The Use Of Compost In Urban Agriculture
This Working Document (1996) by D.'t Hart, J. Pluijmers, from UWEP (Urban Waste Expertise Programme), WASTE web site. Posted May 8, 1999

Urban Organic Wastes, Urban Health And Sustainable Urban And Peri-Urban Agriculture - Linking Urban And Rural By Composting
This paper was presented at the Workshop "Rural-Urban Linkages" sponsored by UNDP and the Government of the State of Paraná, Brazil, in March, 1998. Posted May 5, 1999

Waste Management in Nairobi, Kenya
"Organic wastes are also important to the urban agriculture sector as all sorts of livestock, including goats, chickens and the occasional cow, feed on top of waste heaps." 15,000 word report written by Kim Peters. Posted March 5, 1999

Raising Quail for Food in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada
Important ruling! Fredericton City Council approves the raising of quail for food. Jean Louis Deveau describes how he provides a meal a month for his family raising these birds. Posted February 25, 1999

FAO's Agriculture 21 Magazine: Issues in Urban Agriculture
"Looming over many urban farmers, both men and women, is the constant threat of losing access to their plot and being forced to stop production. In many areas, non-farming households' inability to access land in the city is the major reason given for not farming." Posted January 29, 1999

Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture Report
This report was presented to the FAO Committee on Agriculture (COAG), meeting in Rome on 25-26 January 1999. Updated January 29, 1999

FAO PhotoFiles

Yemen: crops in old Sana'a town

Bosnia: a widow with the crops she grows on a plot supplied free by the municipality

China: ducks at the South Suburb Beijing Company, which raises the "Beijing Duck" - famous worldwide for its special taste

Agricultural Development in Israel
"...from the experience of a country situated in a less favorable natural environmemt, where farming is applied within the framework of the desert and in areas surrounded by highly populated urban zones." Posted December 6, 1998

Agroecological Aspects of The Peri-urban Process
Raanan Katzir, Specialist in Agrotechnology and Director for Projects and Technologies and Latin American Affairs in Israel's Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, describes agroecological solutions which offer mutual benefits to both farmers and city dwellers.

Israel's Compost Program
"With over 400 tons of organic matter going to landfills every day from Jerusalem, the need to compost is urgent." said Naomi Tzur, head of SPNI Jerusalem branch. ... From Zevel to Zahav (Garbage to Gold) - The Palestinian Agricultural Relief Committee (PARC) is pioneering a compost program in the Bethlehem area with regional outreach. Posted June 9, 1998

Jerusalem Cityfarm
The Cityfarm is located on the 20 dunam Jerusalem Educational Farm started 35 years ago to provide the new generation of immigrant youth with practical farming experience. As the city expanded, the farm became surrounded by populated neighborhoods. Over 1,000 children from 25 schools in Jerusalem visit weekly. Posted April 22, 1998

World Urban Growth Means More Hunger, UN says
"By the millennium there will be 20 cities of more than 10m people, nearly all of them in the third world. The number of impoverished city dwellers will have risen from 400 million in 1990 to 1 billion, and there will be an 'anarchic spread' of shanty towns, sickness, corruption and inflation," reports the BBC Online Network. Posted December 3, 1998

Y2K Threatens ... Urban Agriculture to the Rescue
A number of writers are looking at city food production as a response to a possible Millennium Computer Crisis.
Y2K and Our Big Bet
"The bad news," said Levenston, "is that it takes time to grow food. You can't just turn it on. You can't grow food in a panic. It takes planning."
An Edible Park
"The edible park produces multiple varieties of apples, peaches, pears, figs, mulberries, cherries, raspberries, blueberries, nuts, culinary and medicinal herbs." Posted November 19, 1998

Yukon Territory Community Garden - Year One
"The young people involved in the Renewable Resources summer program did some harvesting ... a bunch of 18 year olds digging up the spuds with such glee you'd think they were gold nuggets ... seems the kids had never done anything like that before and thought it was great fun!" Posted October 27, 1998

Casitas: Gardens Of Reclamation
"Drawing on Caribbean agricultural and architectural traditions, Puerto Rican community gardeners in New York not only cultivate vegetables, fruit, and medicinal as well as culinary herbs, but also construct one- and two-room wood frame structures known as casitas or little houses." Photographs by Ejlat Feuer, text by Daniel Winterbottom showing at El Museo del Barrio in New York City. Updated November 8, 1998

Jane Weissman and her Vision for New York's Community Gardens
Long-time director of GreenThumb, Jane Weissman, has been given a People's Hall of Fame award "for tireless work promoting New York's community gardens and casitas." Posted October 24, 1998

City Farmers - the film
Directed and produced by Meryl Joseph, City Farmers is "a journey of hope down New York City's meanest streets where inner-city residents have transformed derelict, abandoned lots into oases of vegetables and flowers." Posted October 20, 1998

WWOOFing: "Willing Workers on Organic Farms" gives city people a chance to experience farming
Over 20 countries around the world have WWOOFing programs. In 1997 WWOOF Canada had 280 hosts across the country, 130 of them in BC. 1000 volunteers worked hard on organic farms, gardens and homesteads in exchange for 3 wholesome meals and accommodation. Updated October 11, 1998

Community Gardening in Greater Madison, Wisconsin
"In the summer of 1997, twenty-four community gardens were in operation in the Greater Madison Area. These sites contain approximately 1600 individual plots." (9,500 words) Posted October 1, 1998

New York - Bees Bring Taste of Honey to Inner City
"Now he has seven hives in Manhattan and Brooklyn and one on the roof of a school in the Bronx. Blind taste tests conducted here and in Massachusetts have borne out customers' claims that the city honey is better than the country variety." Posted September 30, 1998

Chickens In Soup
Some people believe that an egg-producing hen is of greater value than a barking dog or a noisy lawnmower, but City Hall doesn't agree.

Urban "Animal" Agriculture Comes to Chicago
For 52 years, Heifer Project International has brought livestock to rural communities throughout the world to combat hunger and poverty and help restore the environment. Now they are bringing dairy goats and honeybees to the inner city.

Chancen und Risiken der Kleinbäuerlichen Urbanen Tierhaltung
GTZ in Germany has prepared a comprehensive report on animal urban agriculture. The complete report is published here in German.

Rabbit Raising in Cities
"A survey of rabbit production is done every 4 years in Hungary. About 98% of Hungary's rabbit production is done in small scale enterprises. Over 31% of rabbit breeders have 6 to 10 does. Only 17.2% have over 20 does." Posted June 24, 1998

"Rooted in Community" Community Gardens in New York City
In a 6000 word report to the New York State Senate entitled "Rooted in Community", Carole Nemore, writing on behalf of State Senator John Sampson, urged preservation of community gardens in New York City. The report was an outcome of a research effort during which questionaires were sent to most of the City's GreenThumb gardens. Posted April 14, 1998

Photographs of Community Gardening in New York
Operation Green Thumb celebrates the beauty and joy of New York's in an exhibition of 43 photographs. Published in conjunction with the show is a wonderful booklet titled Tales From The Field II, Stories By GreenThumb Gardeners

Montreal Community Gardens
Pierre Bourque, community garden champion and a 30 year veteran of Montreal's civil service, was recently elected Mayor of Montreal.

Community Gardening in Major Canadian Cities: Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver Compared
Sean Cosgrove shares with us his paper (9000 words) prepared for Urban Agriculture Policy In Southern Africa, an International Conference held in Pretoria, South Africa, March 3-5, 1998 Updated July 3, 1998

A Sustainable Future For Boston's Community Gardens
Garden Futures' publication, Rooted in Our Neighborhoods, is a detailed report which seeks long-term solutions for sustaining community gardening in Boston, a city with over 120 community gardens.

Formula for Determining the Value of Crops Produced in Community Gardens
This formula was developed by the USDA and the National Gardening Association in 1981 at which time it very closely approximated values determined by weighing each harvest and pricing the harvested crops at local markets over an entire season. Posted May 24, 1998

Urban Agriculture in Northern Spain - brief observations
"We began our search for city farmers at the edge of the city, where market-oriented production of vegetables is still going on very close to buildings. Soon we found a particularly impressive site not far from the city centre - "La Huerta Del Abuelo Rosel." Posted September 13, 1998

Urban Market Gardening in Saskatoon
Wally Satzewich makes money from small urban gardens. "The produce is harvested, and then washed in my backyard, and placed in a walk-in cooler in my garage. It is then taken to market in a small 1/4 ton truck. I look at the weekly cash-flow from one of my 1000 sq. ft. gardens, and I am very impressed." Posted August 30, 1998

*** Most Recent Pages and Links Added (by Date) ***

Jakarta Governor Says Poor Can Farm City Land
Agence France Presse reports that "security forces in Indonesia have been powerless to stop scores of incidents of people digging up golf courses and parks to plant vegetables, banana trees and fast-growing tubers." Posted August 10, 1998

The Autobiography of an Urban Farm
Michael Abelman has written a book about his home, Fairview Gardens: The Center for Urban Agriculture, a 12-acre organic farm in Goleta, California, surrounded by housing developments, highways and encroaching urban sprawl. This self-sufficient farm, which employs 15 people, grosses over $350,000 annually. Posted July 30, 1998

Urban Horticulture Project (Care-Haiti)
Port-Au-Prince, Haiti

"Around Port-au-Prince, where slums have developed as rural populations migrate to the city, there are many areas growing food (corn, pigeon peas, beans, cassava)." Posted June 24, 1998

The Utilisation of Urban Waste by Near-urban Farmers in the Hubli-Dharwad City-region of Karnataka, India
"The report outlines the current situation regarding the management and use of urban waste, composting practices currently employed, a review of the use of urban waste in other city-regions of South Asia, and a review of relevant soil fertility issues..." Posted May 30, 1998

Ville Et Nature
Dans Les Agglomérations D'Afrique Et D'Asie

Where does the town end and the countryside begin? Who is urban, who is rural? Pierre-Marie Tricaud and Philippe Blancher analyze the relationship between the two through various examples, taken from large African and Asian cities. A short introduction to the book (in French) is included here as well as most of the excellent bibliography. Updated February 3, 1999

Satirical Web Site Creates a "College of Urban Agriculture"
"Learn how to grow weeds and qualify for federally subsidized reclamation water." General Delivery University's (GDU) "Bored Of Rejects" will even provide you with a diploma.

Tanzania: Urban/ peri-urban Horticulture/ Agriculture Publications
The Urban Vegetable Promotion Project has sent us a list of 21 papers produced under their guidance.

Sowing Seeds of Change: Down On The Farm In Philadelphia
Urban fish farming is part of a vision of the future for the City of Philadelphia published in the Philadelphia Inquirer. "The operation could produce upward of 20 million pounds of fish a year, Penn researchers say. Add a processing plant to fillet, freeze, package and ship frozen fish, and you're talking 1,000 to 2,000 new jobs."

Creating a Center for Sustainable Urban Agriculture and Food Systems at the University of California Gill Tract in Albany
More than 30 non-profits and community organizations in the Bay Area, propose that the University of California enter into a university/community partnership in order to create the world's first university center on sustainable urban agriculture and food systems.

Urban Agriculture in Drylands
Katherine Waser of the Arid Lands Information Center at The University of Arizona, has put together a fascinating issue of the Arid Lands Newsletter. Included is a report on urban agriculture in Middle Eastern cities by Joe Nasr and Paul Kaldjian and another featuring city farming in Istanbul also by Paul Kaldjian. Updated March 3, 1999

Urban Women and Subsistence Household Production in Kampala, Uganda
Dan Maxwell writes that "farming in the city in contemporary Africa ... is the deliberate effort of urban women to provide for themselves and for the persons for whom they are responsible, the security of a source of food that is not dependent on cash incomes or fluctuating markets." (8000 words)

The Significance of Urban Agriculture
A report by Rachel Nugent. "The benefits of urban agriculture include, income to producers (market or in-kind); employment of low-skilled or unemployed residents; value of produced output; improvement of environment (air quality, hydrology, reduced run-off); reduced use/need for rural-urban infrastructure; avoided costs of wastewater treatment; avoided costs of solid waste disposal; import substitution; and reduction of urban blight." (6200 words)

The Nutrition Garden Project
This past spring, Albie Miles began growing all his own food in a 4,500 square foot garden at the Center for Agroecology, University of California at Santa Cruz. ... A typical breakfast consisted of toasted amaranth porridge with winter squash. For lunch he ate stir-fried or steamed vegetables with wheat and amaranth chapati bread.

People, Plants and Homes
Government agency, BC Housing, manages 8,000 units of social housing across the province of British Columbia. More than 1,850 tenants are actively involved in a unique urban gardening program and large community gardens flourish at 26 housing developments.

A Seaside Arcology for Southern China
Francis Frick of the Department of Architecture at the University of Hong Kong writes about 'architectural ecology' in China. "China's urban population stood at over 350 million in 1995. It is expected to pass 450 million by 2000. 432 new cities in China between 1995 and 2010 will almost double the 1995 amount, housing approximately 60% of China's total population."

The Role of the Living Landscape as an Element of Sustainability In Asian Cities during the 21st Century
Tobias Forster, an urban planner who has been working in Hong Kong for the last three years, presented this paper at the POLMET 97 Conference, November, 1997.

Urban Agriculture In Zambia
Axel Drescher, Associate Professor at the University of Freiburg, Germany, presents his research on home gardens in Lusaka, Zambia. Two of his papers are featured here.

Why Urban Agriculture?
William E. Rees, Professor and Director of the School of Community and Regional Planning at the University of British Columbia, gives us his views on the reasons for urban agriculture. Professor Rees is co-author of Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth.

Sustainable Urban Food Production in the City of Vancouver: An Analytical and Strategy Framework for Planners and Decision-Makers
Rob Barrs wrote this thought-provoking paper as a project for the UBC School of Community & Regional Planning. (20,000 words)

Sierra Magazine features stories about edible "Livable Cities" May/June, 1997
Articles include "Food for Thought - Downtown on the farm" and "Strong Roots - Teenagers plant seeds of hope." Updated September 22, 1998

Urban Agriculture in Zimbabwe
"...recommended to the serious student of either urban food security and urban poverty, or urban planning and urban management in Africa." International Planning Studies

Yaounde, Cameroon: Capital Becomes Garden City
"In the past, urban agriculture had been discouraged by officials of the ministries of health and environment, who saw farms in towns as breeding grounds for mosquitoes, snakes and rodents."

Urban Agriculture in Nairobi, Kenya
"The case of Mama S., a single mother with six adult children serves to illustrate the role food production can have in the education of children from low-income households. Mama S. states that revenues from food sales allowed her to put all her children through school."

City Farming in Albania
"The pigs ate the family's kitchen waste: bread, leftover food, vegetable parings, etc. If their neighbours minded the smell or noise, they said nothing; most people are in the same situation and understand that people do what they have to in order to survive."

Australian City Farms
For the first time, a booklet has been produced to document the activities, focus and set-up of Australian city farms, community gardens and creative living/enterprise centres.

School Gardens
"The food garden increases their sense of wonder. It's pretty magical, but at the same time, it demystifies the concept of food production."

Small-Scale Farmers in Urban Areas
Here you will find market gardeners, metrofarmers, bio-intensive farmers and others who sell their produce.

Gardening Questions? Visit one of these sites.
The Internet is a treasure chest full of gardening secrets and these excellent sites will link you to many of them. Updated August 22, 2000

Horticulture Therapy
Strolling along a path in her electric wheelchair, she paused, and a gleam came to her eye. Glancing mischieviously over her shoulder, she leaned closer to confide, "I like getting dirty the best."

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Revised August 24, 2007

Published by City Farmer
Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture