Published by City Farmer, Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture



Africa and Urban Agriculture

Food Production, Urban Areas and Policy Responses
PDF. Paper published in 1998. Frank Ellis and James Sumberg "In a sense the term urban agriculture both claims too much and offers too little in the policy context of urban poverty and family food security. It claims too much by equating all food production in towns with improved food security for poor people, and it offers too little by failing to consider the role of rural-urban interactions in explaining the survival capabilities of the urban poor." Posted December 6, 2007

Uganda - Wabiduku Peri-Urban Agricultural (Wapa) Project
"The initial stage will involve forming working committees among the target beneficiaries. The leaders of these committees, local council, one executive and the project staff will visit households within target areas to mobilize people for community meetings. These will provide a basis for forming urban farmers' associations or cooperatives for input resources mobilization and collective transportation and or marketing of their produce. The project will buy seeds, seedlings, and cuttings for demonstrating to member groups so that each member gains the skills and knowledge to set up their own gardens at home."
Posted May 7, 2007

University Students' Opinions For Urban Dwellers To Persist Raising Livestock In Tanzanian Towns
By Professor Mlozi, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. "... Five reasons residing at the government level encouraged urban dwellers to undertake urban agriculture. The five reasons were, in order of importance, the government paying little salary to her employees, the poor national economy, poor coordination between ministries for enhancing UA, lack of government policy for enhancing UA, and urban dwellers seeing senior government officials undertaking UA." Posted April 3, 2007

Urban Farming in an East-African Town - To Subsidise My Income
Book. "For urban households in East Africa who have access to land, either around or close to their home, producing a crop or keeping livestock is often a cultural norm. Since 1990 however, the need for urban agriculture has been strengthened by economic crisis. And while production of crops or livestock on urban land may not be as significant as the production that urban households - or their relatives - earn from rural land, it still makes an important contribution to livelihoods. In the words of several respondents in this book, it 'subsidises my income', making possible a standard of living that would otherwise be unattainable." Posted December 14, 2006

Informal Irrigation in Urban West Africa: An Overview
"In West Africa, the urban population is taking over the rural. Informal irrigation in urban and peri-urban areas taking advantage of the growing urban markets and the common lack of refrigerated transportation and storage, complements rural agriculture in feeding the cities with fresh vegetables. This report tries to provide a state-of-the-art overview on irrigated urban agriculture in the West African sub- region based on a comprehensive literature review supported by the results of three IWMI- FAO projects." Updated October 19, 2006

Kampala: A Vision of the Future
"I view Kampala as a progressive African city. Recently working as a researcher in this urban center, I set out to discover farmer innovators, and not only did I find one or two, but indeed I found many. What I also found in Kampala, that directly relates to its titling of 'progressive', is that those within bi-lateral agencies and the government are not only very much aware of these innovators, but even utilize their know-how to further the good of all farmers, and food consumers, within Kampala City. I discovered real environmentalists and long-term, sustainable-minded actors within the policymaking realm." Updated September 14, 2006

Not in My Backyard
"Mrs. Mabel Bikandema, an innovator farming in the Makindye Division of Kampala, produces compost from all of the organic matter that originates on her farm and in her household. To supplement her own source of biodegradable mass, Mrs. Bikandema regularly visits the produce market, where she pays boys around 2,000 shillings (about 30 US cents) to collect discarded organic matter - cabbage stems, bananas peels, animal droppings, etcetera - and take it to her home." Updated September 14, 2006

The Diverse Roles of Urban Agriculture - Case Study of South Durban Basin KwaZulu-Natal - South Africa
"This study addresses the social, economic and political importance of urban agriculture in the heavily industrialized area of the South Durban Basin (SDB). Research suggests that resource accessible households use UA as a means of securing their assets for a variety of livelihood endeavours, not solely economic." Posted August 18, 2006

Revealing Social Dimensions of Open Space Cultivation by Older Women in Harare - Advancing a Social Planning Discourse for Urban Agriculture
"Findings from this research have been used to develop a gender-aware history of women and urban agriculture in Harare. Key findings show that the forms of organisation for open space cultivation developed by older women have been historically unacknowledged, ignored, and impeded by those with decision making power, most often male elites." Posted August 3, 2006, 2006

An Examination of a Community-Based Urban Agriculture Project: the Case of Musikavanhu in Budiriro, Harare
"The aim of the study was to develop a comprehensive understanding of a community-based urban agriculture project. Specifically, the research analysed the organisation of Musikavanhu project in Budiriro, Harare, Zimbabwe, showing its relationships with external bodies, how it accessed land for urban agriculture and identified the nature of farming practices. Furthermore, the research was initiated to explore the effects that a community-based urban agriculture has on the community with the intent of identifying the actual benefits." Posted June 17, 2006

Irrigated Urban Vegetable Production in Ghana: Characteristics, Benefits and Risks
"More than 200,000 urban dwellers eat exotic vegetables daily on Accra's streets and in canteens and restaurants. Most of the perishable vegetables are produced on open spaces in the cities or its fringes due to insufficient cold transport and storage. This activity is highly profitable and can lift vulnerable groups out of poverty. It can also contribute to flood control, land reclamation and city greening. However, poor farmers have increasing problems finding in and around the cities unpolluted water sources for irrigation." Posted May 28, 2006

Online course for urban agriculture - Feeding Cities in Anglophone Africa with urban agriculture
"The aim of the online course allows for municipal authorities, students, NGO workers, or other interested people in urban and peri-urban agriculture to either strengthen their knowledge or learn about the variety of topics involved in urban and peri-urban agriculture.... explain the concepts of urban agriculture, identify health impacts, evaluate the potentials and constraints of crop production, estimate the risks and opportunities of livestock production, implement solid waste management procedures, treat and re-use wastewater, promote the integration of urban agriculture in urban planning and development." Posted April 8, 2006

Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture Policy Prospects in Kenya
"The workshop, which also received support from the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), used an issue-based framework as the basis for developing a policy process. Substantive papers were presented on: Employment and Poverty, Health Issues and Waste Management, Food Security focusing on Household Nutrition (Fresh Vegetables and Dairy), Land Use Management and Physical Planning, Legislation and Governance." Posted April 3, 2006

Urban Agriculture in East Africa: practice, challenges and opportunities
"Although urban agriculture is tolerated in Kenya, town planning legislative provisions do not recognise urban agriculture as a legitimate land use that should be provided for in the urban areas. In the case of Tanzania, efforts have been made to integrate urban agriculture into the urban land use system, but little has been done to actualise the legislative provisions. Therefore, it has not been possible to harness the full potential of urban agriculture in employment, income and food supply." Revised March 21, 2006

Urban agriculture as a survival strategy: An analysis of the activities of Bulawayo and Gweru urban farmers (Zimbabwe)
"The research concluded that the government of Zimbabwe, policy makers and town planners in the cities of Bulawayo and Gweru cannot afford to continue with politically motivated regulations lacking strict by-laws governing the practise of urban agriculture. The current green belts model was a step in the right direction though it did not address the issue of title deeds, which is a crucial one for urban farmers." Revised MArch 16, 2006

Livestock Keeping in Urban Areas - Kenya
" The study showed that in order of importance, the livestock keepers, rated livestock for the following reasons: as an asset, food, subsistence, income and even gifts/social status. The products consumed were meat, milk and eggs. Animal manure was used on the farms and a small amount sold. Animals also provided draught power for tillage and transport. " Posted February 16, 2006

Growing Well in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania): The Potential of Urban Agriculture in Improving the Lives of At-Risk Youth
"Given the scarcity of public investment in child welfare in African cities today, a conceptual and practical analysis of programs that support the physical well-being of street children and youth who formerly resided in rural areas is urgently needed. This paper discusses efforts towards social inclusion of former street youth in urban agriculture using two programs in Dar es Salaam (Dar), Tanzania as case studies." Posted February 2, 2006

Two 'Farming in the City' Annotated Bibliographies from Urban Harvest
"An Annotated Bibliography of Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture in Uganda by Sarah N. Kimeze and An Annotated Bibliography of Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture in the Philippines with Emphasis on Metro Manila by Dr. Constancio C. de Guzman. These publications contain a list of citations from articles, books, documents, reports, and theses on urban and peri-urban agriculture in their selected locations followed by a brief description on the content." Posted December 16, 2005

Victory Community Garden in Kabale, Uganda
"This garden project is the beginning of the development of sustainable local answers to problems of land fragmentation and subsistence farming. The gardens have been developed to work within the Ugandan Government's economic and ecological policies; such as to encourage market gardening and to protect soil from erosion and degradation." Posted June 29, 2005

Revealing the Social Dimensions of Open Space Cultivation by Older Women in Harare - Advancing a Social Planning Discourse For Urban Agriculture
"Findings from this research have been used to develop a gender-aware history of women and UA in Harare. Other key findings show that the forms of organisation for open space cultivation (SOSC) developed by older women have been historically unacknowledged, ignored, and impeded by those with decision making power, most often male elites."
Posted January 26, 2005

Urban Agriculture and Women's Socio-Economic Empowerment: A Case Study of Kiswa and Luwafu Areas in Kampala City
"Although women are said to be prospering in this informal sector, a number of constraints characterize their survival strategy. This sounds like a contradiction because despite the problems they encounter, most of those involved in urban agriculture are not ready to quit the practice." Posted November 2, 2004

Urban Farmers as Extension Domain: The Case of Atteridgeville,(Pretoria, South Africa)
"The article identifies and explains three extension domains among urban farmers among the informal settlements of Atteridgeville. These consist of home gardeners, community-project gardeners, and users of open urban spaces. ... The paper concludes by calling for closer involvement of government and public extension in urban agriculture in the study area because urban farming mainly benefits the poor." PDF download. Posted July 9, 2004

Does Irrigated Urban Agriculture Influence the Transmission of Malaria in the City of Kumasi, Ghana?
"To verify the possible impact of irrigated urban agriculture on malaria transmission in cities, we studied entomological parameters, self-reported malaria episodes, and household-level data in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. A comparison was made between city locations without irrigated agriculture, city locations with irrigated urban vegetable production, and peri-urban (PU) locations with rain-fed agriculture." Posted January 10, 2004

Urban Agriculture in Kano, Nigeria - Three Reports
They are: "Feeding Africa's urban poor: urban and peri-urban horticulture in Kano, Nigeria", "Urban agriculture under threat: the land security question in Kano, Nigeria", and "Water, land and health in urban and peri-urban food production: the case of Kano, Nigeria". Posted November 2, 2003

Feeding Africa's Growing Cities Into The 21st Century: The Potential Of Urban Agriculture
"From a survey of literature and detailed empirical evidence from Kano and Dar es Salaam, this paper presents a framework for analysing urban agriculture and proposes a number of policy recommendations which could possibly enhance its future sustainability." Posted November 2, 2003

Kenya - Experts Call for Urban Farming Policy
"According to Eric Kisiangani of ITDG "officially sanctioned and promoted, urban agriculture could become an important component of urban development and make more food available to the urban poor in Kenya besides providing employment in a moribund economy that Kenya is"." Updated October 26, 2003

The Status Of Urban And Peri-Urban Agriculture In Windhoek And Oshakati, Namibia
"The study showed that urban and peri-urban agriculture is practised by over 70% of the residents of Windhoek and Oshakati, and that over 23 types of vegetables and fruit trees are grown on tiny plots. Most of the produce is consumed by the household and contributes to improvement of their nutritional status. The absence of policy on urban and peri-urban agriculture is seen as a serious constraint towards its intensification and development." Posted July 9, 2003

Urban Cultivation In Accra: An Examination Of The Nature, Practices, Problems, Potentials And Urban Planning Implications
"Exotic vegetables and ornamental crops from Europe were purposely grown to feed the European settlers and to beautify their residences; the cultivation of vegetables was confined to the residences of European civil servants and merchants and the castles and forts which served as both the seat of government and the homes of the colonial administrators." Posted February 13, 2003

Changes In Official Attitudes Towards Urban Agriculture In Accra
"This paper is about urban agriculture, which is one of the most important informal sector activities chosen by urban dwellers in Accra. It explains why officials initially held negative attitudes toward urban agriculture. It also identifies the factors that contributed to changing official attitudes. It is noted that Ghanaian officials began supporting and even encouraging urban agriculture once they realized the importance of the practice." Posted February 13, 2003

Reusing Organic Solid Waste In Urban Farming In African Cities: A Challenge For Urban Planners
"Urban and rural communities in Africa have a long history of resource conservation through waste reuse and the application of composted organic waste for farming. This paper examines the concept of waste reuse urban farming (WRUF) as a unique local solution to address municipal solid waste problems in African cities." Posted February 13, 2003

Indigenous African Food Crops and Useful Plants: Their Preparation for Food, and Home Gardens
Here is a report with information on home gardens in Kenya, Edo and Delta States of Nigeria, Anambra, Enugu, Benue, and Kogi States of Nigeria, Southeastern Nigeria, Northern Nigeria, West Africa, Cameroon, and Ghana, Eastern and Southern Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Niger, Ethiopia, Ghana. The whole book is available as a PDF. Posted August 22, 2002

Common Ground Program & Mini- Ag Center (CGP) in Kenya
"I was able to stop working away from my farm as a wage laborer in Mumiasi to work full-time tending my one-acre farm. After receiving training in Biointensive practices my wife and I converted our conventionally cultivated farm to one using double-dug beds. This enabled us to produce surplus vegetables for sale in local markets. The income increased four times what it was as a day laborer and I am a much happier person working for myself. As a result I have trained 530 other families in my Community" Posted March 20, 2002

A Study of Urban Agriculture in Accra, Ghana
Food Production in Urban Areas by Kwaku Obosu-Mensah "This book explores the emergence of contemporary urban agriculture as well as official attitudes toward this practice. Using three theoretical models, the author tells us who is more likely to be involved in urban agriculture. In line with this, he explains why, contrary to expectations, in Ghana there are more males than females involved in urban agriculture." Updated February 13, 2003

Feeding East African Cities - FAO Workshop - Addis Ababa 7-9 May 2002
"East African Cities are growing rapidly. Their growth is accompanied by an increase in the number of urban households living in poverty. The extent of urban food insecurity and possible interventions to alleviate this are not sufficiently appreciated by central and local government institutions and by the international community. If the challenge of feeding cities is met adequately, the development of periurban and rural areas will also be promoted." Posted February 9, 2002

Municipal Development Programme in Eastern and Southern Africa
"Municipal managers, decision-makers and planners are in search of strategies on how to harness and maximise the benefits of UA and mitigate its negative impacts. In response to this demand MDP launched the Urban Agriculture Programme in Eastern and Southern Africa. The programme seeks to enable deeper understanding of UA and provide mechanisms to enhance its benefits and at the same time provide tools with which to combat its negative impacts." Posted December 12, 2001

The German Allotment Gardens - a Model For Poverty Alleviation and Food Security in Southern African Cities?
"Conditions of hunger and poverty were widespread in Germany and other European countries nearly 200 years ago when the first "gardens for the poor" emerged. Rapid industrialisation, accompanied by urbanisation and migration, forced large numbers of people into dismal living conditions. Urban gardens were one official response. " Posted October 28, 2001

Why Hawked Milk Can Save Your Baby
"Historical and scientific evidence shows that, after boiling, milk can actually save, not kill, your baby by providing essential nutrients. If boiling milk were ineffective as implied in the article, most Kenyans who each day buy raw milk, boil and consume it would be sick each day. And as we all know from our own day-to-day experience, we do not get sick from drinking chai with maziwa." Posted July 3, 2002

More Kenyans Consume Raw Milk Due to Poverty
"It is now official, more raw milk than processed milk is consumed not only in the rural areas in Kenya, but also in the urban centers including Nairobi, Kenya's capital city where 80% of all milk consumption is unprocessed. " Posted August 25, 2001

Urban Harvest: CGIAR - Strategic Initiative On Urban And Peri-Urban Agriculture (SIUPA)
"For more than 30 years the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) has been striving to increase food security and reduce poverty for the poorest people living in developing countries. The CGIAR'S response to the threat of growing urbanization and the increased dependence of city dwellers on urban farming was to launch SIUPA." Posted June 10, 2001

The Economic Costs and Impact of Home Gardening in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
"In arid and semi arid urban and periurban areas, such as the city of Ouagadougou, home gardening is an important factor for the economy of households, particularly in the less advantaged segments of the population, where 92% of the working population is engaged in agriculture." Updated October 10, 2001

Urban Farming Program (U.F.P.) in Kenya
"The UFP currently works with over 1000 slum dwellers in Maili Saba, Silonga and Mwenge slums located about 15Km East of Nairobi. The Main objective of the UFP is to: help improve the livelihood of the urban slums dwellers in Nairobi thorough introduction of promising agricultural technologies, support of policy dialogue of key stakeholders involved in urban farming, and enhance community organization and institutional strengthening." Posted March 2, 2001

Urban Farmers in Nakuru, Kenya
"According to the municipal by-laws, farming practices are forbidden within the town's boundaries. The problem for the municipality is that the enforcement capacity is too small; hence, farming in town has become a very common phenomenon. Nowadays, the municipality allows crop cultivation as long as the crop is less than one metre high. Although that excludes maize, even this crop can be seen everywhere. Most people cultivate the common food crops, mostly for their own consumption." (large download - over 22,000 words) Posted January 10, 2001

Alleviating Poverty In Maputo, Mozambique
"Peri-urban agriculture, on the contrary, is an economical and environmentally sustainable and increasingly important occupation in Maputo. The authors explain the trends of these production activities developed after the independence on the outskirts of the capital-city, emphasising the decisive role of the General Cooperatives Union, which nowadays counts 6 200 members, cropping about 2 100 ha of arable land, technically oriented and socially supported by the organization, and namely constituted by women and children." Posted January 8, 2001

Municipal Organic Waste Recycling for Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture in Africa and Asia
"Regarding the high price of industrial fertilizers, organic waste stream products generated in the urban and peri-urban areas are considered as valuable nutrient sources for crop production, especially for high-value crops (e.g. vegetables, ornamental plants) and for urban gardens and recreation areas."Posted August 12, 2000

Vegetable Production on Open Spaces in Dar es Salaam - Spatial Changes from 1992 to 1999
"Almost 650 ha of the urban area of Dar es Salaam are currently used for vegetable production on open spaces, which is equivalent to 4% of the whole surveyed area, offering employment for over 4000 farmers. From these 650 ha, 12% are privately owned land, 48% are institutionally and 40% publicly owned." (16,000 words)Posted July 28, 2000

Peri-urban Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa
Cirad, Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement, has published the proceedings of CIRAD/CORAF workshop on periurban agriculture in sub-saharan Africa (20-24 April, 1998) Updated February 14, 2000

Le péri-urbain en Afrique : une agriculture en marge?
par Paule Moustier et Jacques Pagès. 1. Le constat d'une agriculture marginalisée à promouvoir 2. Le péri-urbain à sa juste place 3. Quelques éléments de conclusion Posted January 25, 2000

The United Nations University Press - Food and Nutrition Bulletins, 1985, 1987
These valuable, early papers on Urban Agriculture, look at food gardens around the world. Northern Colombia; Lima, Peru; Lusaka, Zambia; Chagga home gardens, Northern Tanzani; Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea; Javanese home garden; West Indian kitchen gardens; Newfoundland; Poland. Posted January 27, 2000

Cities Feeding People Homepage
This site provides information about the program initiative on urban agriculture (UA) at Canada's International Development Research Centre. UA projects in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Morocco, India, Cambodia, Kenya, Ghana, are described. The site also describes a Latin American UA organization named AGUILA currently grouping nearly 40 institutions from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay and Peru.

Towards the Establishment of a Development and Research/Training Network on Urban Agriculture for East And Southern Africa (UANESA)
UNNESA's founding members include Kenya, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and the Republic of South Africa (English-speaking African countries). A similar network is being developed by French-speaking African countries (West-Central Africa). Posted Oct 7, 1999

Synopsis of Workshop on Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture - August, 1999 Accra, Ghana
The workshop theme was: "Closing the nutrient cycle for urban food security and environmental protection". Among the farmer participants were the "best urban" and "best peri-urban" farmers of Accra and Kumasi. The workshop was limited to 60 participants. Two-thirds came from Africa (Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo), one third from Europe (Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, The Netherlands), Thailand, USA, and Canada. Updated August 28, 1999

Waste Management in Nairobi, Kenya
"Organic wastes are also important to the urban agriculture sector as all sorts of livestock, including goats, chickens and the occasional cow, feed on top of waste heaps." 15,000 word report written by Kim Peters. Posted March 5, 1999

Tanzania: Urban/ peri-urban Horticulture/ Agriculture Publications
The Urban Vegetable Promotion Project has sent us a list of 21 papers produced under their guidance.

Urban Women and Subsistence Household Production in Kampala, Uganda
Dan Maxwell writes that "farming in the city in contemporary Africa ... is the deliberate effort of urban women to provide for themselves and for the persons for whom they are responsible, the security of a source of food that is not dependent on cash incomes or fluctuating markets." (8000 words)

Urban Agriculture In Zambia
Axel Drescher, Associate Professor at the University of Freiburg, Germany, presents his research on home gardens in Lusaka, Zambia. Two of his papers are featured here.

Urban Agriculture in Zimbabwe
"...recommended to the serious student of either urban food security and urban poverty, or urban planning and urban management in Africa." International Planning Studies

Yaounde, Cameroon: Capital Becomes Garden City
"In the past, urban agriculture had been discouraged by officials of the ministries of health and environment, who saw farms in towns as breeding grounds for mosquitoes, snakes and rodents."

Urban Agriculture in Nairobi, Kenya
"The case of Mama S., a single mother with six adult children serves to illustrate the role food production can have in the education of children from low-income households. Mama S. states that revenues from food sales allowed her to put all her children through school."

International Urban Agriculture.
A number of excellent publications have come out which show International Urban Agriculture being treated very seriously by development professionals.

Our 70-513 book prep courses & 70-669 vce includes the latest set of 70-652 vce practice questions and 70-647 vce dumps with 100% guarantee for victory in exam 70-511.
Food Gardens in South Africa
The Foundation sells a wide variety of resources in a number of different languages including English, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa, Tswana, and S. Sotho.

Search Our Site[new]

pointer Return to Contents' Page pointer

Revised December 6, 2007

Published by City Farmer
Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture