Published by City Farmer, Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture



Europe and Urban Agriculture

London: The Edible Urban Landscape
An Assessment Method for Retro-Fitting Urban Agriculture Into An Inner London Test Site. "This thesis has developed a method, based around Geographical Information Systems (GIS), for retro fitting, measuring and evaluating, a vegetable growing, UA system, which could be integrated into green urban space. The results of the method should be in a format which makes them quantifiable for both architects and planners, so that UA food systems can be considered as a form of renewable energy, along side wind or solar." Posted January 29, 2007

Urban Agriculture, Garden Allotments in Zurich, Switzerland
"Garden allotments consist of sizeable pieces of land divided into a series of small parcels which are used by individuals and families as a place to grow a wide array of flowers, vegetables and fruit. In Zurich, they are often found abutting or adjacent to forested areas, creating an urban landscape that in parts looks more like the country than the city. Each allotment usually features a small shed or miniature 'house' which is used to store gardening equipment and other items such as barbeques for summer recreation. They are not supposed to be used as residences, but in practice many do use them in this way in summer time for short periods." Posted March 17, 2005

An Urban Food Garden in Malaga, Spain
"Esta es una historia real que demuestra que es posible cultivar un huerto "ecol�gico" en tu casa, casi sin importar donde vivas. Tan sólo necesitas sol, agua y, lo más importante, algo de interés, entusiasmo y amor a la naturaleza. Un tomate criado por tí de forma artesana y natural (sin pesticidas, ni herbicidas, ni abonos químicos) tiene el indescriptible y fantástico sabor de la satisfacción personal." Posted August 12, 2004

A Mini-Farm Trip to Uzbekistan 2004
"This country is self-sufficient in food and only imports tropical fruits such as bananas. They are more expensive than at home so very few can afford them. Every house has a garden and as you fly over the country all you see is gardens and minifarms." Posted August 5, 2004

An Olympic Sized Urban Agriculture Idea from Greece
... from the Olympic Village Athens 2004 architectural team who prepared the greenest proposal... "Hydroponic plantations on the roof, fish farming for nitrate water purification, bioclimatic roads, active thermal capacity of the structure with use of inter-seasonal thermal storage, almost all of the architects aspirations are found in this proposal." Posted November 29, 2002

Small-Scale Farming and Gardens in Urban and Rural Areas - Working Group, Humboldt University, Berlin
"Gardens and small-holders agriculture belong to the informal economy - newly rediscovered in the public discourse as a result of increasing joblessness. In the old society, yard and garden were indispensable parts of the oikos, as Otto Brunner called the 'whole house'. Still today gardens, small animal holding and self-subsistence agriculture belong to the domain of the home economy. Household and food growing constitute actually the primary, basic sector of the economy." Elisabeth Meyer-Renschhausen (In both German and English) Posted July 16, 2002

Self-Sufficiency Plan for Copenhagen Suburb
"The Environment and Energy Centre (MEC) in Höje Taastrup (population 45,000), to the west of Copenhagen in Denmark, has developed a realistic plan to make the region self-sufficient in food. Double the percentage of garden owners who grow their own vegetables; Triple the number of allotments; Quintuple the number of people owning hens (5 per cent already do); Increase production of honey and strengthen bonds with nearby farms by getting more people to buy produce directly from them; or for people to buy their own animals and rent pasture from the farmers;" Posted March 2, 2002

Farm for Urban Dwellers in Svendborg, Denmark
"We have a small farm, 'smallholding', farmhouse and outbuildings, and about one acre of land. The farm is situated very close to some blocks of flats, home of about 3000 people in the outskirts of the town of Svendborg, Denmark. Svendborg itself has about 20.000 inhabitants." Posted December 30, 2001

The History of The Allotment Gardens in Copenhagen
"The allotment garden movement peaked during the Second World War with lOO,OOO gardens. After the war prosperity increased and the allotment gardens flourished. In the l960's however, when a private car became within reach for some people in Copenhagen, one just had to have a summer house, preferably on the North Coast about lOO kilomet- res away." Posted November 22, 2001

The German Allotment Gardens - a Model For Poverty Alleviation and Food Security in Southern African Cities?

"Conditions of hunger and poverty were widespread in Germany and other European countries nearly 200 years ago when the first "gardens for the poor" emerged. Rapid industrialisation, accompanied by urbanisation and migration, forced large numbers of people into dismal living conditions. Urban gardens were one official response. " Posted October 28, 2001

Denmark's New Law About Community Gardens
"The status of the gardens will be radically changed as of November l, 2001: Previously the gardens had "temporary" status; after November 1 they will become "permanent" gardens - they will now be secure in the future." Posted September 21, 2001

Alice's Colony Garden in Holbaek, Denmark
"In my case I have ended up with a true jewel. The house is like a very tiny cottage, has a bedroom, dining room with table and chairs, a weeny kitchen with gas cooking-plates, and a sink." Posted September 21, 2001

Economic Costs and Benefits of Urban Agriculture in East London
"UA in East London is generally no longer a response to crises or 'coping strategy' as it once was during the first and second world wars and in previous centuries. Commercial activities are primarily motivated by profit although some producers, particularly organic, have a 'philosophy' attributed to their lives and see it more than simply a way to make money." Posted July 4, 2001

Community Agriculture in Metropolitan Sandwell: A realistic vision?
"Sandwell's history of highly polluting heavy industries has left a legacy of degraded and contaminated land that is difficult and expensive to reclaim for food and gardening projects. At the outset, the issue of land contamination was given high priority, and SUGS project workers undertook detailed site investigations as a first step in risk assessment." Updated April 8, 2001

Family Allotment Gardens in Georgia: Introduction of a European Model for Community Food Security In Urban Areas
"The neighborhood that was finally chosen for implementing the project was a high-rise district with a majority of unemployed and poor families. It was near the river, where a city sub-district office was located. This building was put at our disposal for meetings with the families who would participate in the scheme." Posted January 6, 2001

Urban Agriculture in St Petersburg - Russian Federation
This is Case Study 1 in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Series on Urban Food Security. "A retired pensioner, Ms Alla Sokol, the former chief engineer of a flower company, was the first enthusiast to take on the responsibility of starting a new roof top garden in her house. She decided to supply those who did not have access to dacha plots with fresh vegetables and greens. They could buy her produce at very moderate prices. "(Also in Russian)(Slow Download) Posted October 30, 2000

Sustainability from the children's perspective - A journey through the landscape of German children's city farms
"In a survey among city farms and farm like projects in six European countries, I found that projects with just 1 hectare (2,5 acres) size host as many as 60.000 visitors a year. The numbers of visitors tend to increase up to a size of 2 hectares (with 200.000 vistors a year)." Oliver Ginsberg Posted September 18, 2000

Adventure playgrounds and city farms in Europe and what they contribute to sustainable urban development.
A comparative survey on adventure playgrounds and city farms in 6 European countries (Denmark, UK, The Netherlands, France, Switzerland & Germany) in English and German. Posted September 18, 2000

Urban Food and Nutrition Action Plan (WHO European Region)
See link to PDF file part way down page. "Cities produce enormous amounts of waste, and this waste is usually transported as far away and as cheaply as possibly. Urban food growers have the potential to transform organic waste, storm water and treated grey-water and recycle it for use in food production. Urban organic waste (solid and water) can be used as a productive resource and moreover the energy used in packaging and transporting food can be reduced." Postd July 26, 2000

Russian Eco-Apartment Plan Includes Rooftop Food Garden and Basement Worm Composting
"The brick 9-storied building, constructed in 1966, consists of 267 apartments with 540 residents, 60% of whom are pensioners. It produces 200 kilograms of food garbage daily in winter time and 300 kg in summer time. The house has a flat roof of 1700 square meters, 25 m from the ground and a cellar measuring 600 square meters." Posted October 29, 1998

Rooftop Gardening in St. Petersburg, Russia
"This year we also started a ground level garden in the Artificial Limb Institute which rehabilitates invalids who lost legs or arms in the War in Chechnia (mostly boys of age 18-25)."

CityHarvest: The feasibility of growing more food in London
New, 1999 report by Tara Garnett of the Sustain Organization. "Using a productivity level of 10.7 tonnes/ha drawn from research into allotment yields, London could produce around 232,000 tonnes of fruit and vegetables. Taking the World Health Organisation's recommendation that we should eat around 0.5kg of fruit and vegetables a day (five portions), the amount potentially available would supply Londoners with 18% of their daily intake - roughly one of the recommended five portions a day." Updated November 7, 1999

City Farms in United Kingdom
Things you can do here include: daily feeding and mucking out, milking and cheese making, beekeeping and general animal care.

ETC's Urban Agriculture Program: an overview
"ETC stimulates information exchange, dialogue and co-operation between policy makers, urban planners, organisations of urban and peri-urban farmers, micro and small-scale enterprises involved in recycling of waste resources, consumer organisations, researchers and other stakeholders." Posted October 30, 1998

Urban Agriculture In Europe: Bulletins
The ETC in the Netherlands has published three bulletins from the European Support Group on Urban Agriculture (ESGUA). The just published, third issue of the bulletin focuses on urban forestry in Europe. Updated May 14, 1998

European Federation Of City Farms
Find organizations in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Greece. Read the EFCF's philosophy in their "City Farms, a bridge between agriculture and citizen" and "We are a part of the earth and the earth is a part of us." Posted December 10, 1998

Urban Agriculture in Northern Spain - brief observations
"We began our search for city farmers at the edge of the city, where market-oriented production of vegetables is still going on very close to buildings. Soon we found a particularly impressive site not far from the city centre - "La Huerta Del Abuelo Rosel." Posted September 13, 1998

Germans Use Their Green Thumbs To Cultivate The Cities
In the mid-19th century, Mr. Hurt says, "city fathers asked themselves how they could control the revolutionary tendencies of workers." Small garden plots were the answer, not only in Berlin but also Paris, Brussels, and Vienna. (From The Christian Science Monitor)

City Farming in Albania
"The pigs ate the family's kitchen waste: bread, leftover food, vegetable parings, etc. If their neighbours minded the smell or noise, they said nothing; most people are in the same situation and understand that people do what they have to in order to survive."

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Revised January 29, 2007

Published by City Farmer
Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture